Yugoslav partisans

Lub Yugoslav Partisans , [ceeb toom 1] [11] los yog lub teb chaws Liberation Army , [ceeb toom 2] officially lub National Liberation Army thiab partisan detachments ntawm Yugoslavia , [faj seeb 3] [12] yog tus Communist -led Anti-fascist kam mus rau lub Lub zog Axis (tseem ceeb Lub Tebchaws Yelemees ) hauv tebchaws Yugoslavia thaum Tsov Rog Ntiaj Teb Zaum II . Coj los ntawm Josip Broz Tito , [13] lub Partisans pom tau hais tias yuav cov teb chaws Europe zoo tshaj plaws anti- Axis kuj zogthaum Ntsuj Rog Thoob Qab Ntuj Zaum 2. [14] [15] [16]

Kev Tiv Thaiv Lub Tebchaws Kev Tiv Thaiv thiab Kev Tshawb Nrhiav
Haujlwm ntawm Yugoslavia
Cov thawj cojJosip Broz Tito
Ivan Ribar
Andrija Hebrang
Aleksandar Ranković
Koča Popović
Svetozar Vukmanović
Milovan Đilas
Boris Kidrič
Mihajlo Apostolski
Cov sijhawm ua haujlwmXyoo 1941–1945
Tus thawj coj Cov Nom Tswv Kav Tos Tsa Yugoslavia
Tsev Hauv PausTxawb txawb, txuas rau Cov Pab Pawg Tseem Ceeb
Cov cheeb tsam nquagAxis-nyob hauv Yugoslavia Romania (cov chaw nyob hauv qhov chaw nkaum) [1] Ltalis (thaj chaw ntawm Istria , thaj chaw ntawm Cres thiab Lošinj , Fiume , Zara , thaj chaw ntawm Friuli-Venezia Giulia , tshwj xeeb tshaj yog Trieste ) Nazi Lub teb chaws Yelemees (qhov chaw hauv Carinthia thaum Lub Tsib Hlis 1945 xwb)



Lub tswv yim
Kev nom tswvFar-sab laug
Qhov Coob80,000–800,000 ( saib hauv qab )
Cov Phooj YwgCov Phooj Ywg Ntawm Lub Ntiaj Teb Zaum II

Yav tas los Axis zog:

Lwm yam Allied tog:

Lwm Cov Kev Pab Allied:

Cov yuav tsis ntseegAxis zog :

Lwm tus sib koom tes Axis:

Lwm tus tawm tsam:

Kev sib ntaus sib tua thiab kev tsov rogMontenegrin kev tawm tsam
Srb kev tawm tsam
Užice koom pheej
Bihać koom pheej
ntawm Neretva
Sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Sutjeska
Sib tua ntawm Kozara
Raid ntawm Drvar
Sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Belgrade
Syrmian Front
Trieste kev ua haujlwm
(feem ntau tseem ceeb)
Ua tiav los ntawm
Yugoslav Cov Neeg Army

Qhov pib rog guerilla thaum pib, Lub Rooj Sab Laj tau tsim los ua lub zog loj sib ntaus sib tua hauv kev ua rog sib tua tom qab tsov rog, muaj ib ncig ntawm 650,000 thaum lig xyoo 1944 thiab tau tsim ua plaub pawg tub rog thiab 52 pawg . Lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb tau tshaj tawm ntawm Cov Neeg Partis yog kev ywj pheej ntawm thaj av Yugoslav los ntawm kev tswj hwm cov rog thiab kev tsim tsoomfwv, ntau haiv neeg lub xeev nyob rau hauv Yugoslavia

Lub Rooj Sab Laj tau npaj rau kev pib ntawm Tito tom qab kev tawm tsam Axis ntawm Yugoslavia thaum Lub Plaub Hlis 1941, thiab tau pib tawm tsam tiv thaiv kev tiv thaiv rog tom qab lub tebchaws Yelemes tau tawm tsam Soviet thaum Lub Rau Hli. Qhov kev tawm tsam loj tau pib thaum Lub Xya Hli, tom qab ntawd koom nrog Dra Mia Mihailović 's Chetniks , uas ua rau kev tsim cov koom pheej ntawm Užice tsis ntev . Lub Axis tau txhawb ntau cov kev tiv thaiv hauv kev teb tab sis ua tsis tiav los rhuav tshem cov khoom lag luam ntawm tes thiab lawv cov kev coj noj coj ua. Los ntawm lig xyoo 1943 cov pawg tau hloov lawv txoj kev txhawb nqa los ntawm Mihailović rau Tito raws li kev sib koom tes ntawm Chetnik tau pom meej, thiab Cov Pej Xeem tau txais kev lees paub kev ua haujlwm ntawm Tehran Sablaj . Thaum lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo 1944, Cov Pooj Ncig thiab Lav Xias Red Army tau tawm tsam Belgrade tom qab Belgrade Kev Ua Phem . Thaum xaus kev ua tsov rog, Cov Pauv Nyas tau txais kev tswj hwm ntawm tag nrho lub teb chaws kuj yog Trieste thiab Carinthia . Tom qab ua tsov rog, Tog Pwm tau rov kho dua tshiab rau hauv cov tub rog ib txwm muaj ntawm tsoomfwv Meskas Cov Neeg Tseemfwv Tebchaws Yugoslavia .

" Rau caj npab, txhua tus neeg! ", Daim ntawv tshaj tawm ntawm Cov Neeg Ib Feem Kev Nyab Xeeb.

Ib ntawm ob lub hom phiaj ntawm kev txav mus los, uas yog tub rog lub zog ntawm Unitary National Liberation Front (UNOF) pab pawg sib koom tes, coj los ntawm lub teb chaws Communist ntawm Yugoslavia (KPJ) [2] thiab sawv cev los ntawm Pawg Neeg Txhim Kho Kev Tshawb Fawb rau National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ), Yugoslav wartime kev sib dhos los ua ke , yog kev tawm tsam rau cov tub rog. Mus txog thaum cov khoom siv Askiv pib tuaj txog hauv qhov tsis txaus ntseeg hauv xyoo 1944, cov neeg nyob hauv lub tebchaws yog lub hauv paus ntawm caj npab. [17] Lwm lub hom phiaj yog tsim kom tau txais tsoomfwv ntau haiv neeg lub xeev nyob rau hauv Yugoslavia. [18] Txog qhov kawg no, KPJ tau sim hais rau txhua tus ntau pawg neeg hauv Yugoslavia, los ntawm kev tiv thaiv cov cai ntawm txhua pawg.

Lub hom phiaj ntawm kev tawm tsam kev tawm tsam, Chetniks , yog kev khaws cia ntawm Yugoslav monarchy , kom muaj kev nyab xeeb ntawm haiv neeg Serb , [19] [20] thiab kev tsim kom muaj ntau dua ntawm Serbia [21] los ntawm kev ntxuav cov haiv neeg tsis Serbs los ntawm ib cheeb tsam lawv suav hais tias rightfully thiab keeb kwm Serbian. [22] [23] [24] [25] Kev sib raug zoo ntawm ob txoj kev txav yeej tsis yooj yim txij li thaum pib, tab sis los ntawm Lub Kaum Hlis 1941 lawv degenerated rau hauv tag nrho cov teeb meem. Txog rau Chetniks, Tito cov kev cai yias-haiv neeg zoo li los tiv thaiv Serbian, hos Chetniks tus huab tais tau txwv tsis pub cov neeg suav liab. [7] Lub sijhawm thaum ntxov tsov rog Cov Tub rog feem ntau tau los ntawm Serbs. Lub sijhawm ntawd cov npe ntawm cov neeg Muslim thiab Croatia tus thawj coj ntawm Partisan tau hloov pauv los tiv thaiv lawv los ntawm lawv cov phooj ywg feem ntau Serb. [26]

Tom qab kev tawm tsam German raug yuam los ntawm Soviet-Bulgarian kev tawm tsam hauv Serbia, North Macedonia thiab Kosovo thaum lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo 1944, cov lus sau ntawm Serbs, Macedonians thiab Kosovar Albanians tau nce ntau. Txog xyoo 1944, tag nrho cov rog ntawm Partisans suav 650,000 tus txiv neej thiab poj niam tau teeb tsa hauv plaub pawg tub rog thiab 52 pawg , uas tau koom nrog kev sib ntaus sib tua . [27] Lub Plaub Hlis 1945, Cov Khomob Suav muaj coob dua 800,000.

Qhov kev txav no tas li hu ua "Cov Neeg Ib Leeg" thoob plaws hauv kev ua tsov rog. Txawm li cas los xij, vim muaj kev hloov pauv ntau zaus hauv qhov loj me thiab cov txheej txheem kev txhim kho, cov Partisans thoob plaws lawv cov keeb kwm tuav plaub lub npe tag nrho:

  • Lub Tebchaws Kev Tiv Thaiv Kev Nkag Tebchaws ntawm Tebchaws Yugoslavia [daim ntawv 4] (Lub Rau Hli 1941 - Lub Ib Hlis 1942)
  • Lub Tebchaws Kev Tiv Thaiv Kev Sib Tham thiab Kev Ua Haujlwm Pab Dawb ntawm Yugoslavia [daim ntawv 5] (Lub Ib Hlis - Kaum Ib Hlis 1942)
  • Kev Tiv Thaiv Kev Tiv Thaiv Lub Tebchaws thiab Kev Tshawb Nrhiav Haujlwm ntawm Yugoslavia (Kaum Ib Hlis 1942 - Lub Ob Hlis 1945). Ntau zuj zus los ntawm Kaum Ib Hlis 1942, Partisan tub rog raws li tag nrho feem ntau tau xa mus rau qhov yooj yim raws li National Liberation Army ( Narodnooslobodilačka vojska, NOV), qhov uas lub sij hawm "Partisans" tau txais kev paub ntau dua hauv kev xa mus rau tag nrho cov kev tawm tsam (suav nrog, piv txwv, , AVNOJ ).
  • Yugoslav Army [sau tseg 6] - thaum 1 Lub Peb Hlis 1945, National Liberation Army tau hloov los ua cov tub rog niaj zaus ntawm Yugoslavia thiab hloov npe tshiab raws li muaj.

Qhov kev tawm dag zog yog Ameslikas npe hu ua National Liberation Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia ( Narodnooslobodilački partizanski odredi Jugoslavije, NOPOJ) thiab tuav lub npe no txij Lub Rau Hli 1941 txog Lub Ib Hlis 1942. Vim li no, lawv lub npe luv luv tau yooj yim ua "Partisans" (sau peev) (qhov chaw ua haujlwm "Yugoslav" feem ntau siv qee lub sijhawm tsis yog Yugoslav los cais tawm lawv los ntawm lwm qhov kev tawm tsam).

Thaum Lub Ib Hlis 1942 txog Kaum Ib Hlis 1942, lub zog tag nrho lub npe nom tswv tau luv luv National Liberation Partisan thiab pab dawb pab tub rog ntawm Yugoslavia ( Narodnooslobodilačka partizanska i dobrovoljačka vojska Jugoslavije, NOP i DVJ). Cov kev pauv tau txhais tau tias yog raws li kev txav mus los ntawm tus yam ntxwv zoo li "pab tub rog pab dawb".

Thaum Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1942 qhov kev hloov no tau pauv npe rau National Liberation Army thiab Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia ( Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije, NOV i POJ), lub npe uas nws tuav txog thaum kawg ntawm kev ua tsov rog. Lub xeem kawg ntawm cov nom tswv yog lub npe tag nrho uas muaj feem nrog Cov Ncauj Lus, thiab nthuav tawm qhov tseeb tias cov tub ceev xwm pab tub rog thiab lwm lub xov tooj ntawm tes tau raug teeb tsa mus rau hauv National Liberation Army ( Narodnooslobodilačka vojska ). Lub npe hloov kuj tseem cuam tshuam qhov tseeb tias tom kawg tau txhawb qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov neeg sab nrauv tau cais tawm ntawm lawv tus kheej.

Tsis ntev ua ntej qhov kawg ntawm kev ua rog, thaum lub Peb Hlis 1945, tag nrho cov tub rog tiv thaiv tau hloov mus rau hauv cov tub rog niaj zaus ntawm Yugoslavia thiab hloov npe hu ua Yugoslav Army. Nws yuav khaws lub npe no kom txog thaum xyoo 1951, thaum nws tau hloov npe ua lub npe Paboslav Cov Neeg Pawg Tub Rog .

Partisan fighter Stjepan "Stevo" Filipović qw " Kev tuag rau kev siab phem, kev ywj pheej rau cov neeg !" vib nas this ua ntej nws tua los ntawm Serbian State Guard chav tsev hauv Valjevo , nyob hauv Yugoslavia . Cov ntsiab lus no tau dhau los ua cov lus qhia Partisan tom qab.

Nyob rau 6 Lub Plaub Hlis 1941, Lub Tebchaws Yugoslavia tau txeeb chaw los ntawm txhua sab los ntawm lub zog Axis, feem ntau los ntawm cov tub rog German , tabsis tseem suav nrog cov Italian, Hungarian thiab Bulgarian cov qauv. Thaum lub sij hawm qhov ntxeem tau, Belgrade tau foob pob los ntawm Luftwaffe . Qhov kev nkag tebchaws tau ntev tshaj li kaum hnub, xaus nrog qhov tsis muaj kev pom zoo tso tawm ntawm Royal Yugoslav Army hnub tim 17 lub Plaub Hlis. Dhau li ntawm qhov tsis muaj kev cia siab thaum lub sij hawm muab piv rau Wehrmacht , cov tub rog tau sim tiv thaiv txhua tus ciam teb tab sis tsuas yog tswj tau kom nyias kis tau cov khoom muaj tsawg. [28]

Cov lus hais ntawm qhov capitulation tau mob hnyav heev, raws li cov Axis ua rau dismember Yugoslavia. Lub teb chaws Yelemees tseem nyob rau sab qaum teb ntawm Drava Banovina (ze ze niaj hnub-hnub Slovenia ), [29] thaum tswj hwm kev ua tub rog ncaj qha ntawm ib thaj chaw Serbian swb nrog tsoomfwv puppet. [30] [31] Lub xeev kev ywj pheej ntawm Croatia (NDH) tau tsim nyob rau hauv German kev coj, uas tau nthuav dav ntau thaj chaw ntawm niaj hnub ntawm Croatia thiab zoo li muaj tag nrho thaj chaw ntawm niaj hnub-hnub Bosnia thiab Herzegovina thiab Syrmia cheeb tsam ntawm niaj hnub- hnub Serbia . Mussolini lub tebchaws Ltalis tuav cov seem ntawm Drava Banovina (annexed thiab rov qab los ntawm lub Xeev Xeev Lubiana ), ntau ntawm Zeta Banovina thiab cov nplauv loj ntawm cov ntug dej hiav txwv Dalmatia (nrog rau yuav luag txhua Adriatic Islands). Nws kuj tau txais kev tswj hwm hauv lub tebchaws tsim kev tswjfwm tshiab ntawm Montenegro , thiab tau tso cai rau cov vajntxwv hauv lub xeev Independent of Croatia, txawm hais tias wielding me ntsis lub zog tiag nyob hauv nws. Hungary xa cov tub rog Hungarian thib peb thiab tseem hwv thiab ntxiv rau hauv Yugoslav thaj tsam ntawm Baranja, Bačka, Međimurje thiab Prekmurje . Bulgaria , lub sijhawm no, txuas ntxiv ze li ntawm tag nrho ntawm Macedonia , thiab thaj chaw me me ntawm sab hnub tuaj Serbia thiab Kosovo. [32] Kev daws teeb meem ntawm Yugoslavia, kev tsim NDH, Italian tus tswv xeev Montenegro thiab Nedic tus Serbia thiab kev muab txuas rau ntawm thaj chaw Yugoslav los ntawm ntau lub teb chaws Axis tsis sib xws nrog txoj cai thoob ntiaj teb hauv kev siv thaum lub sijhawm ntawd. [33]

Josip Broz Tito nyob hauv Bihać , 1942.

Cov neeg yuam cai tau tsim lub nra hnyav rau cov pej xeem hauv zos uas Cov Neeg Partis tsis yog tuaj yeem txaus siab rau kev txhawb nqa ntau xwb tab sis rau ntau tus neeg yog tib txoj kev xaiv rau kev muaj sia nyob. Thaum ntxov ntawm txoj haujlwm, German cov tub rog yuav dai lossis tua yam tsis sib xws, suav nrog cov pojniam, menyuam yaus thiab cov laus, txog li 100 lub nroog hauv nroog rau txhua tus tub rog German raug tua. [34] Thaum cov kev ntsuas no rau kev tiv thaiv tsis txhob tiv thaiv Communist-tau muab tshaj tawm nyob rau hauv txhua qhov chaw nyob hauv German, nws tsuas yog tswj hwm hauv Serbia nkaus xwb. [35] Ob ntawm qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ua phem los ntawm cov tub rog German yog kev tua neeg pov tseg ntawm 2,000 cov neeg pej xeem hauv Kraljevo thiab 3,000 hauv Kragujevac . Cov qauv ntawm 100 tus neeg raug txhom tau tua rau txhua tus tub rog German raug tua thiab 50 tus neeg raug txhom tua rau txhua tus tub rog German raug txiav hauv ib nrab nyob rau lub Ob Hlis 1943 thiab tshem tawm tag nrho nyob rau lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo ntawd. [35]

Tsis tas li ntawd, Yugoslavia muaj kev cuam tshuam txog txoj cai thiab kev coj ncaj ncees, nrog cov tub rog sib koom tes tawm tsam cov neeg hauv zej zog ua rau cov pej xeem ntshai. Cov tsoomfwv ntawm tus menyuam roj hmab Independent State of Croatia pom nws tus kheej tsis muaj peev xwm tswj hwm nws thaj av thaum ntxov ntawm txoj haujlwm, uas ua rau muaj kev kub ntxhov loj los ntawm Ustaše cov tub rog thiab cov tub rog German. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Cwj pwm ntawm cov pawg neeg tsis sib haum xeeb uas tau ua dhau los, Pab Pawg Sib Tham ntawm Yugoslavia tau tsiv los mus teeb tsa thiab koom ua ke tawm tsam kev tawm tsam los ntawm tsoomfwv thiab pawg tswj hwm rau hauv qhov kev tawm tsam thoob tebchaws. Lub koom txoos, raug coj los ntawm Josip Broz Tito , raug txwv tom qab nws txoj kev vam meej tseem ceeb hauv kev xaiv tsa tom qab Kev Tsov Rog Thoob Ntiaj Teb I Yugoslav thiab ua haujlwm nyob hauv av txij li ntawd. Tito, txawm li cas los xij, tsis tuaj yeem ua qhov qhib tsis muaj kev thim rov qab ntawm USSR , thiab raws li Molotov-Ribbentrop tseem nyob hauv kev yuam, nws raug yuam kom tos. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Thaum lub Plaub Hlis Ntuj los ntawm Yugoslavia, kev coj noj coj ua ntawm Kev Sab Laj hauv Zagreb , ua ke nrog Josip Broz Tito. Tom qab ib hlis, lawv tawm mus rau Belgrade . Thaum Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact ntawm Lub Teb Chaws Yelemees thiab Soviet Union tau pib siv, cov Tsoomfwv Suav tsis tuaj yeem qhib qhov kev sib tawm tsam nrog cov tsoomfwv tshiab ntawm Tsoomfwv Tebchaws Independent of Croatia . Hauv thawj ob lub hlis dhau los ntawm kev ua haujlwm, lawv tau nthuav dav lawv cov av hauv av thiab pib sib sau ua ke riam phom. [36] Thaum pib lub Tsib Hlis 1941, qhov sib hu ua kev sab laj ntawm Maypaj ntawm cov tswvcuab ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm thoob plaws tebchaws, uas nrhiav kev txhim kho kev tawm tsam kev tawm tsam kev tawm tsam, tau tuav hauv Zagreb. Nyob rau lub Rau Hli 1941, lub rooj sib tham ntawm Central Committee ntawm KPJ kuj tau muaj, uas nws tau txiav txim siab los pib npaj rau qhov kev tawm tsam. [37]

Kev Tawm Tsam Barbarossa , kev tawm tsam Axis ntawm Soviet Union, tau pib rau 22 Lub Rau Hli 1941. [38]

Kev them nyiaj yug ntawm Cov Neeg Partisan sib txawv raws li cheeb tsam thiab haiv neeg, uas cuam tshuam txog kev txhawj xeeb ntawm cov neeg hauv zos thiab cov tub ceev xwm. Thawj qhov teeb meem ntawm Partisan tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv Croatia thaum 22 Lub Rau Hli 1941, thaum plaub caug Croatian Communists tawm tsam qhov kev tawm tsam ntawm ntoo Brezovica ntawm Sisak thiab Zagreb, ua rau 1 Sisak Partisan Detachment . [39]

Thawj qhov kev tawm tsam los ntawm Tito tshwm sim ob lub lis piam tom qab, hauv Serbia. [39] Lub Koom Haum Pab Koom Tes ntawm Yugoslavia tau txiav txim siab los tsim kev tawm tsam kev tsim txom thaum 4 Lub Xya Hli, hnub uas tom qab ntawd yog Rog Hnub - lub caij so rau hnub so hauv SFR Yugoslavia . Ib qho Žikica Jovanović Španac tau tua cov thawj phom ntawm lub phiaj xwm 7 Lub Xya Hli hauv qhov xwm txheej Bela Crkva .

Kaum tus hluas ua rau cov neeg Partisan tos txog kev tua los ntawm German cov tub rog hauv Smederevska Palanka , 20 Lub Yim Hli 1941.

Thawj Zagreb- Sesvete pawg neeg tau tsim nyob hauv Dubrava thaum Lub Xya Hli 1941. Hauv lub Yim Hli 1941, 7 Lub Rooj Sib Tham Thaj Av tau tsim nyob hauv Dalmatia nrog lub luag haujlwm ntawm kev tawm tsam kev tawm tsam. Thaum 26 Lub Yim Hli 1941, 21 tus tswv cuab ntawm Thib Ib Feem Sib Koom Tes Sib Tham raug tua los ntawm pawg tub rog tom qab raug ntes los ntawm Ltalis thiab Ustashe cov tub rog. [40] [41] Ib cov lej ntawm lwm pawg neeg tau tsim thaum lub caij ntuj sov xyoo 1941, suav nrog hauv Moslavina thiab Kalnik . Ib qho kev tawm tsam hauv Serbia thaum lub caij ntuj sov, coj los ntawm Tito, thaum lub tebchaws Užice raug tsim, tab sis nws tau swb los ntawm Axis cov tub rog thaum Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1941, thiab kev txhawb nqa rau Cov Neeg Partis hauv Serbia tom qab ntawd tau poob.

Nws yog ib zaj dab neeg sib txawv rau Serbs hauv Axis nyob hauv Croatia uas tig mus rau ntau haiv neeg Partisans, lossis Serb tus neeg xaiv nom Chetniks. [42] Tus kws sau xov xwm Tim Yudas sau tseg tias nyob rau theem pib ntawm kev ua tsov ua rog thaum xub thawj ntawm Serbs nyob rau hauv Partisans txhais tau tias qhov kev ua rog ntawm Serbian lub tebchaws tau tawg. [43] Kev ua tsov ua rog zoo sib xws muaj nyob hauv pawg Croatian lub teb chaws nrog cov sib tw hauv tebchaws uas qhia los ntawm Ustaše thiab Partisans.

Hauv thaj av ntawm Bosnia thiab Herzegovina, qhov ua kom muaj kev ntxeev siab ntawm Serb yog Usta policye txoj cai ntawm kev ntiab tawm, yuam kev hloov pauv thiab kev sib tua ntau ntawm Serbs , [44] zoo li lwm qhov ntawm NDH. [45] [46] Kev Tawm Tsam Tsis Tuaj rau communist kev coj noj coj ua ntawm kev tawm tsam los tiv thaiv Ustasha ntawm Serbs los ntawm Bosnia tseem tau tsim nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm Chetnik kev txav mus los thiab kev ywj pheej uas tau ua raws li cov lus txib ntawm Dragoljub Mihailović. [47] Nyob rau hauv Partisans hauv qab kev ua tus thawj coj hauv Serb tau qhib rau cov tswvcuab ntawm ntau haiv neeg, cov neeg hauv Chetniks tau ua yeeb ncuab rau cov neeg Muslim thiab tshwj xeeb Serbian. Qhov kev tawm tsam hauv Bosnia thiab Herzegovina pib los ntawm Serbs hauv ntau qhov chaw yog kev ua pauj rau cov neeg Muslims, nrog ntau txhiab leej raug tua. [48] Kev tawm tsam pib rau lub Rau Hli 1941 hauv Herzegovina . [46] Hnub Tim 27 Lub Xya Hli 1941, ib qho kev tawm tsam Partisan tau pib thaj tsam ntawm Drvar thiab Bosansko Grahovo . [44] Nws yog kev sib koom tes los ntawm ob sab ntawm Una River hauv thaj tsam ntawm sab qab teb Lika thiab qab teb hnub poob qab Bosanska, thiab ua tiav qhov hloov chaw ntawm NDH qhov tseem ceeb hauv qab kev tswj hwm tus neeg ntxeev siab. [49]

Nyob rau 10 Lub Yim Hli hauv Stanulović, lub zos roob, Cov Neeg Sab Laj tsim lub Chaw Haujlwm Kopaonik Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Ncaj Ncees. Thaj chaw lawv tau tswj, suav nrog cov zos nyob ze, tau hu ua "Miners Republic" thiab tau kav 42 hnub. Tus tiv thaiv kev ntaus kis las tau koom nrog kev tau qib ntawm Cov Phav Pob tom qab ntawd.

Thaum lub Cuaj Hlis 1941 Stolice lub rooj sib tham , cov koom ua ke lub npe koom ua ke thiab lub hnub qub liab uas yog lub cim qhia tau raug coj los siv rau txhua tus neeg sib ntaus coj los ntawm pawg neeg Communist ntawm Yugoslavia.

Xyoo 1941 Cov Pab Tub Koom Tes hauv Tebchaws Serbia thiab Montenegro muaj li ntawm 55,000 tus neeg sib ntaus, tab sis tsuas yog 4,500 tus ua tiav khiav mus rau Bosnia. [50] Hnub 21 Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1941 lawv tau tsim Thawj Pawg Neeg Tuav Pov Hwm ( 1. Proleterska Udarna Brigada ) - thawj pab tub rog Partisan, muaj peev xwm khiav haujlwm sab nraud nws cheeb tsam. Xyoo 1942 Partisan detachments tau tsim ua ke rau hauv Pab Tib Neeg Liberation Army thiab Partisan Detachments ntawm Yugoslavia (NOV i POJ) nrog kwv yees li 236,000 tus tub rog thaum Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1942. [51]

Cov lej ntawm Partisan los ntawm Serbia yuav ploj zuj zus mus txog xyoo 1943 thaum Partis kev txav mus los ntawm kev sib kis los ntawm kev sib ntaus ntawm lub axis. [52] Nce ntawm Cov Neeg Zej Zog hauv Tebchaws Serbia, zoo ib yam li lwm qhov chaw tshaj tawm, tuaj ib nrab los teb rau Tito cov lus thov zam txim rau txhua tus neeg sib koom tes rau 17 Lub Yim Hli 1944. Nyob rau ntawm lub sijhawm ntawd ntau txhiab tus Chetniks hloov ob tog rau tog. [ qhov xav tau ] Kev zam txim yuav raug muab ntxiv tom qab tshem tawm German los ntawm Belgrade rau 21 Kaum Ib Hlis 1944 thiab 15 Lub Ib Hlis 1945. [53]

Thaj chaw uas muaj kev tswj hwm ntawm Communist Party hauv Yugoslavia ( Thaj Av Liberated ), Tsib Hlis 1943.

Los ntawm nruab nrab ntawm 1943 partisan tsis kam rau cov neeg German thiab lawv cov phoojywg tau loj hlob los ntawm qhov ntev ntawm kev tsis sib haum xeeb rau cov uas muaj teeb meem loj hauv qhov xwm txheej dav dav. Hauv ntau qhov chaw ntawm Tebchaws Europe tus yeeb ncuab raug kev txom nyem poob ntawm kev qhia ntawm cov neeg uas nws muaj peev xwm them taus. Tsis pom qhov twg tau qhov kev poob hnyav dua li ntawm Yugoslavia. [54]

Kev tawm tsam thiab kev ua pauj

Yugoslav Kev Koom Tes nrog ntau yam dej num.

Cov Neeg Sawv Cev ntawm cov tog tub sab tub rog ua si txoj kev ua tub rog uas nyiam maj mam nce qib kev vam meej thiab kev txhawb nqa ntawm cov pej xeem sawv daws, thiab ua tiav zoo hauv kev tswj hwm cov chunks loj ntawm thaj chaw Yugoslav. Cov no tau tswj hwm los ntawm "Pawg Neeg Sawv Cev", txhim tsa los ua tsoomfwv cov pej xeem hauv thaj chaw ntawm lub teb chaws tswj hwm los ntawm cov teb chaws, txawm tias kev lag luam caj npab raug teeb tsa. Thaum pib, Cov neeg Partisan yeej muaj tsawg, tsis muaj riam phom thiab tsis muaj vaj tse. Lawv tau muaj ob qhov txiaj ntsig zoo dua li lwm cov kev ua tub rog thiab ua tub rog hauv tebchaws Yugoslavia:

  1. Tus tub rog tseem me tab sis muaj nuj nqis ntawm Spanish Cov Tub Rog Ua Rog Tsov Rog Qub, uas tsis zoo li lwm tus neeg thaum lub sijhawm ntawd, tau muaj kev ua tsov rog niaj hnub no zoo ib yam li cov neeg hauv Tsov Rog Ntiaj Teb Zaum II Yugoslavia.
  2. Lawv tau tsim los ntawm hom phiaj tsis yog haiv neeg , uas txhais tau tias Cov Neeg Part 2 tuaj yeem xav tias tsawg kawg qee theem ntawm kev txhawb nqa hauv txhua lub ces kaum ntawm lub tebchaws, tsis zoo li lwm cov qauv kev ua haujlwm uas cov kev txhawb nqa tau txwv rau cov thaj chaw nrog Croat lossis Serb feem ntau. Qhov no tau tso cai rau lawv cov koog kom tau ntau dua txawb thiab sau lawv cov qib nrog lub pas dej ntau dua ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm tshiab.

Kev txeeb thiab cov tub rog yuam kev, txawm li cas los xij, tau paub zoo txog Kev Raug Mob Pej Xeem, thiab sim rhuav tshem qhov kev tawm tsam hauv dab tsi Yugoslav keeb kwm kev tshawb fawb txhais tias yog xya tus yeeb ncuab loj sib foob. Cov no yog:

  • Cov Thawj yeeb ncuab tub qaug , tus nres ua los ntawm lub Axis nyob rau hauv lub caij nplooj zeeg ntawm 1941 tawm tsam cov " koom pheej ntawm Užice ", ib tug liberated chaw uas zoo heev rau hauv lub Partisans tsim nyob rau hauv thaj Serbia . Thaum Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1941, cov tub rog German tau tawm tsam thiab rov tsim lub teb chaws no, feem ntau cov neeg Partisan tau khiav tawm mus rau Bosnia . [55] Nws yog thaum lub sij hawm qhov lus tawm tsam no tias kev sib koom ua ke ntawm Partisans thiab Royalist Chetnik tau tawg thiab tig mus ua kev tawm tsam. [56]
  • Txoj Kev Tawm Tsam Zaum Thib Ob , kev sib koom tes ntawm Axis kev tawm tsam thaum Lub Ib Hlis 1942 tawm tsam cov koom nrog Partisan nyob rau sab hnub tuaj Bosnia . Cov tub rog Partisan tau rov qab tiv thaiv ib ncig thiab tau yuam kom tawm mus rau pem roob Igman nyob ze Sarajevo . [57]
  • Qhov thib Peb Ua Rau Tus Kheej , kev tawm tsam rau Partisan cov tub rog nyob rau sab hnub tuaj Bosnia, Montenegro , Sandžak thiab Herzegovina uas tau tshwm sim nyob rau lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav xyoo 1942. Nws tau paub hu ua Kev Ua Haujlwm TRIO los ntawm cov neeg German, thiab ntxiv dua nrog lub sijhawm khiav ntawm Partisan. [58] Qhov kev tawm tsam no tau ua yuam kev los ntawm qee qhov chaw hu ua Battle of Kozara , uas tau tshwm sim rau lub caij ntuj sov xyoo 1942. [ sau ntawv xav tau ]
  • Lub Plaub yeeb ncuab tub qaug , tawm tsam " koom pheej ntawm Bihać ", kuj hu ua tus sib ntaus sib tua ntawm lub neretva los yog caij nplooj ntoos zeeg Weiss (Case White), ib tug teeb meem ib lub cheeb tsam ntawm thaj Bosnia thiab sab qaum teb Herzegovina , thiab culminating nyob rau hauv lub partisan tawm tshaj lub neretva dej Cov. Nws tau tshwm sim txij lub Ib Hlis mus txog lub Plaub Hlis 1943. [59]
  • Lub Tsib Coob Tus Ua Txhaum Cai , tseem muaj npe hu ua Sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Sutjeska lossis Poob Schwarz ( Case Dub ). Kev ua haujlwm tam sim ntawd tau ua raws Plaub Plaub Qhov Kev Rau Nyiam thiab suav nrog ib qho kev tiv thaiv ntawm Partisan cov tub rog nyob rau sab qab teb Bosnia thiab sab qaum teb Montenegro thaum lub Tsib Hlis thiab Lub Rau Hli 1943. [suav sau ]
  • Tus yeeb ncuab Rau Thiby , ua rau kev ua haujlwm los ntawm Wehrmacht thiab Ustaše tom qab qhov kev txiav txim siab ntawm Ltalis hauv kev sim kom tau txais Adriatic ntug dej hiav txwv. Nws tau tshwm sim nyob rau xyoo 1943 thiab pib xyoo 1944.
  • Lub Xya yeeb ncuab ua , qhov kawg nres nyob rau hauv thaj Bosnia nyob rau hauv lub quarter thib ob ntawm 1944, uas muaj lag luam Rösselsprung (Knight tus Caws qia), ib tug hai los mus tshem tawm Tito thiab puas tsuaj cov coj noj coj ua ntawm lub partisan zog.

Nws yog cov xwm txheej ntawm kev tawm tsam uas ua haujlwm tawm tsam nws yuav tsum tshem tawm nws txhua yam lossis tso nws muaj zog dua li yav dhau los. Qhov no tau qhia los ntawm cov kev tshwm sim rau txhua qhov ntawm tsib cov kev ua txhaum dhau los ntawm qhov twg, ib qho tom qab ib qho, pawg tub rog thiab kev faib tawm tau tshwm sim muaj zog hauv kev paub thiab kev coj nruj tshaj li qhov lawv tau ua dhau los, nrog kev txhawb nqa ntawm cov pej xeem uas tau tuaj pom tsis muaj lwm txoj hauv kev tawm tsam tab sis kev tuag, raug kaw, lossis kev tshaib plab. Muaj yuav tsis muaj kev ntsuas ib nrab; Cov neeg German tsis tshuav dab tsi tom lawv qab tab sis txoj kev taug. Dab tsi hauv lwm qhov xwm txheej yuav muaj nyob rau lub sijhawm ua tsov rog hauv lub nroog uas cov neeg tawm tsam txawv teb chaws tau hais tias (thiab kev tshaj tawm German tau ua lawv qhov zoo tshaj plaws los txhawb lawv) los ua ib qho kev ua tsov rog rau kev tiv thaiv hauv lub tebchaws. Yog li ntawd meej yog qhov no hais tias tsis muaj chav sab laug rau provincialism; Serbs thiab Croats thiab Slovenes, Macedonians, Bosnians, Christian thiab Moslem, Orthodox thiab Catholic, sank lawv qhov sib txawv hauv qhov muaj kev cia siab ntawm kev mob siab ua kom ciaj sia. [60]

Lub koom haum ua haujlwm raws li cov tub rog ib txwm ua uas tseem tuav tau ruaj khov nyob thoob plaws Yugoslavia. Cov tog tub rog koom nrog kev ua haujlwm ntawm kev tsis kam uas ua rau muaj kev tawm tsam tseem ceeb rau cov neeg pej xeem los ntawm cov tub rog Axis. [61] Kev tua neeg ntawm cov pej xeem poob siab rau Chetniks tsis txhob ua dhau qhov kev tawm tsam, txawm li ntawd los Cov Neeg Pej Xeem tsis tau xav txog thiab txuas ntxiv lub zog uas cuam tshuam rau Axis cov tub rog, tab sis ua rau muaj kev sib tsoo ntawm cov neeg sib txawv. [62]

Allied txhawb nqa

Lub Koomhaum Tub Rog Tub Rog Halifax tus foob pob ntawm 148 Squadron , muaj cov koos poom thauj tog rau nkoj uas muaj khoom siv rau Yugoslav Partisans (1944–1945)

Tom qab ntawd nyob rau hauv qhov teeb meem lub Partisans twb tau los yeej muaj cov coj tsis ncaj, raws li zoo raws li txwv cov ntaub ntawv uas pab txhawb nqa ntawm lub thaj phoojywg , uas txog thaum ces twb txhawb General Draža Mihailović 's Chetnik Rog, tab sis twb thaum kawg ntxias ntawm lawv sib koom tes sib ntaus sib tua los ntawm ntau cov tub rog missions tso rau ob tog thaum tseem muaj tsov rog. [63]

Yuav kom sau cov kev txawj ntse , cov neeg sawv cev ntawm cov tebchaws sab hnub poob tau nkag rau hauv ob tog tog thiab Chetniks. Cov kev txawj ntse tau sib sau los ntawm cov neeg txuas lus rau cov pawg tsis kam yog qhov tseem ceeb rau qhov ua tiav ntawm cov phiaj xwm xa khoom thiab yog thawj qhov kev cuam tshuam rau Allied lub tswv yim zoo hauv Yugoslavia . Qhov kev tshawb rau kev txawj ntse thaum kawg ua rau muaj qhov kawg ntawm Chetniks thiab lawv dab noj hnub los ntawm Tito's Partisans. Hauv xyoo 1942, txawm hais tias cov khoom siv tau tsawg, cov kev txhawb nqa token tau xa kom sib npaug rau txhua tus. Lub xyoo tshiab yuav muaj qhov pauv hloov. Cov tub ceev xwm hauv German tau tsim Kev Ua Haujlwm Schwarz (Thib Tsib tiv thaiv Cov Neeg Tawm tsam), ib qho kev tiv thaiv kev tawm tsam uas tiv thaiv cov neeg tawm tsam, thaum FWD Deakin raug xa los ntawm Askiv los sau cov ntaub ntawv. [suav sau ] Lub Plaub Hlis 13, 1941, Winston Churchill tau xa nws cov lus xa xov mus rau yawg Yugoslav. Nyob rau hauv nws tos txais nws hais:

Koj tab tom ua ib qho kev tawm tsam ntawm tus tub rog tsis txaus ntseeg thiab ua li ntawd koj tab tom ua pov thawj rau koj cov kab lig kev cai zoo. Serbs, peb paub koj. Koj tau yog peb tus kwv tij nyob hauv kev ua tsov ua rog kawg thiab koj cov tub rog tau them nrog lub yeeb koob. Kab Yeeb thiab Nraum, peb paub koj li keeb kwm kev ua tub rog. Tau ntau pua xyoo dhau los koj yog cov neeg ntseeg Vajtswv. Koj lub koob meej zoo li cov tub rog sib kis tau deb thiab dav rau ntawm sab av loj. Ib qhov xwm txheej zoo tshaj plaws hauv keeb kwm ntawm Croatia yog qhov thaum, hauv 16th caug xyoo, ntev dhau los ntawm Fab Kis Kev Tawm Tsam, cov neeg cog qoob loo tau sawv los tiv thaiv tib neeg txoj cai, thiab tawm tsam rau cov ntsiab cai uas ntau pua xyoo tom qab tau muab txoj kev ywj pheej hauv ntiaj teb. Yugoslavs, koj tau tawm tsam rau cov ntsiab lus niaj hnub no. Lub tebchaws Askiv tau sib ntaus sib tua nrog koj, thiab tom qab peb yog kev ywj pheej zoo ntawm Asmeskas, nrog nws cov peev txheej loj thiab ntau dua. Txawm li cas los xij kev sib ntaus sib tua, peb yeej yeej ntseeg tau. [60] [64]

Nws cov lus ceeb toom muaj ob qho kev soj ntsuam tseem ceeb. Qhov thib ib yog tias Cov Neeg Sab Laj muaj lub siab tawv thiab txhoj puab heev hauv kev sib ntaus sib tua German 1 Roob thiab 104 Lub Teeb Ntawm Lub Tebchaws, tau raug mob loj heev, thiab xav tau kev txhawb nqa. Qhov kev soj ntsuam thib ob yog tag nrho German 1st Mountain Division tau mus los ntawm Lavxias los ntawm kev tsheb nqaj hlau los ntawm Chetnik cov chaw tswj kav. Kev cuam tshuam ntawm Askiv (ULTRA) ntawm kev tshaj tawm xov xwm German tau lees paub Chetnik sijhawm. Tag nrho txhua qhov, cov ntawv tshaj qhia txawj ntse tau ua rau Allied txaus siab hauv Yugoslavia kev khiav haujlwm huab cua thiab pauv txoj cai. Thaum lub Cuaj Hlis 1943, ntawm Churchill qhov kev thov, Brigadier General Fitzroy Maclean tau tawm mus rau Tito lub hauv paus chaw nyob ze ntawm Drvar kom ua haujlwm txuas ntxiv mus, rau tus cev lus. Thaum lub sijhawm Chetniks tseem muaj qee zaum muab rau, cov Neeg Partis tau txais feem ntau ntawm txhua qhov kev txhawb nqa yav tom ntej. [65]

Yog li, tom qab Lub Rooj Sib Tham Tehran Cov Ntsej Muag tau txais kev lees paub kev lees paub raws li lub teb chaws txoj kev ywj pheej ntawm lub zog los ntawm cov Allies, uas tom qab tau teeb tsa RAF Balkan Air Force (nyob rau hauv lub zog thiab tawm tswv yim ntawm Brigadier-General Fitzroy Maclean) nrog lub hom phiaj los muab cov khoom siv ntau ntxiv thiab kev ua kom cua txaus rau Marshal Tito's Partisan rog. Lub rooj sib tham nrog Franklin D. Roosevelt thiab Tus Thawj Coj ntawm Cov Neeg Ua Haujlwm ntawm 24 Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1943, Winston Churchill tau taw qhia tias:

Nws yog qhov tseeb tsis txaus ntseeg hais tias zoo tsis muaj cov khoom siv tau xa mus los ntawm hiav txwv mus rau 222,000 cov neeg ntawm Tito. ... Cov stalwarts tau tuav ntau tus Germanans hauv Yugoslavia thaum cov tub rog sib sau ua ke Anglo-Asmeskas tau tuav hauv Ltalis sab qab teb ntawm Rome. Cov neeg German tau pov rau hauv qee qhov tsis meej pem tom qab kev vau tsoo ntawm Ltalis thiab Patriots tau txais kev tswj ntawm qhov loj ntawm ntug hiav txwv. Peb tsis tau, li cas los xij, txeeb lub sijhawm. Cov neeg German tau zoo tag nrho thiab tau tsav lub Partisans tawm me ntsis. Qhov laj thawj tseem ceeb rau qhov no yog cov kab cuav ntawm lub luag haujlwm uas tau khiav los ntawm Balkans. (...) Xav txog tias Cov Pej Xeem tau muab txoj kev pab rau peb zoo li yuav luag tsis tau them nqi rau peb tus kheej, nws yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws los xyuas kom meej tias lawv qhov kev tiv thaiv raug tswj hwm thiab tsis tso cai chij.

-  Winston Churchill, 24 Kaum Ib Hlis 1943 [66]

Cov kev ua si nce (1943–1945)

Tsis paub qhov tseeb tus poj niam tus neeg tua hluav taws nyob hauv Yugoslavia.
7 Vojvodina Pawg Tub Rog nkag mus hauv kev dim tawm Novi Sad , 1944

Ib feem ntawm cov tub rog tau ntev txij li thaum loj hlob mus rau hauv kev sib ntaus sib tua tsis tu ncua piv rau cov tub rog ntawm lwm lub xeev me, thiab zoo tshaj rau lawv feem ntau, thiab tshwj xeeb tshaj rau cov tub rog Jugoslav ua ntej kev ua tsov ua rog, hauv kev tawm tsam, kev caij nkoj, kev coj noj coj ua, ntaus ntsuj plig thiab hluav taws-zog. [67]

Nrog rau Allied huab cua txhawb pab ( Operation Flotsam ) thiab kev pab los ntawm Red Army , nyob rau lub sijhawm thib ob ntawm xyoo 1944 Cov Ntsej Muag tau tig mus rau Serbia, uas tau pom muaj kev sib ntaus sib tua me me txij li thaum lub caij nplooj zeeg koom pheej ntawm Užice xyoo 1941. Lub 20 Lub Kaum Hli, Cov Tub Rog Liab thiab Cov Tub Rog Thaj Av tau dim ntawm Belgrade hauv kev sib koom tes sib koom tes hu ua Belgrade Kev Ua Txhaum . Thaum pib ntawm lub caij ntuj no, Cov Pej Xeem tau tswj hwm tag nrho thaj tsam sab hnub tuaj ib nrab ntawm Yugoslavia - Serbia, Vardar Macedonia thiab Montenegro , nrog rau ntug dej hiav txwv Dalmatian . [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Xyoo 1945, Cov Neeg Sawv Cev Zej Zog, suav ntau dua 800,000 tus tub rog [27] tau tua yeej cov tub rog ntawm lub teb chaws ntawm Croatia thiab Wehrmacht , ua tiav qhov kev tawm tsam nyuaj ntawm Syrmian pem hauv ntej thaum caij ntuj no, noj Sarajevo thaum lub Plaub Hlis, thiab qhov seem ntawm NDH thiab Slovenia txog nruab nrab Lub Tsib Hlis. Tom qab noj Rijeka thiab Istria , uas yog ib feem ntawm Ltalis ua ntej kev ua tsov rog, lawv tau ntaus cov Allies mus rau Trieste los ntawm ob hnub. [68] Tus "kawg sib ntaus sib tua ntawm lub ntiaj teb no ua tsov ua rog II nyob rau hauv cov teb chaws Europe", lub sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Poljana , twb tiv thaiv ntawm lub Partisans thiab retreating Wehrmacht thiab quisling rog ntawm Poljana, nyob ze Prevalje nyob rau hauv Carinthia , nyob rau 14-15 Tej zaum 1945. [ citation ntxiv ]

Seev

Tus chij ntawm Serbian thiab Montenegrin Partisans tau siv nyob rau hauv Thaj Chaw ntawm Cov Tub Rog Tub Rog nyob hauv Serbia , Italian tus thawj coj ntawm Montenegro thiab nyob rau thaj tsam ntawm lub xeev ywj pheej ntawm Croatia uas Serbs nyob.

Lub Axis kev ntxeem tau ua rau txoj kev sib cais ntawm Yugoslavia ntawm lub zog Axis thiab lub xeev ywj pheej ntawm Croatia . Qhov chaw loj tshaj plaws ntawm Serbia tau muab faib rau Thaj Chaw ntawm Cov Tub Rog Tub Rog hauv Tebchaws Serbia thiab vim li ntawd nws tsuas yog piv txwv ntawm tsoomfwv cov tub rog nyob hauv Tebchaws Europe. [69] Tsoomfwv Tub Rog ntawm Pab Pawg Thawj Tswm Saib Xyuas Kev Ncaj Ncees rau Serbia tau tsim nyob rau thaum nruab nrab Lub Tsib Hlis 1941. Lub Chaw Saib Xyuas Haujlwm Thaj Tsam ntawm Yugoslavia tuaj txog hauv Belgrade thaum lub Tsib Hlis, thiab qhov no yog qhov tseem ceeb rau kev tsim kho ntawm cov tawm tsam hauv Yugoslavia. Tom qab lawv tuaj txog, Lub Tsev Haujlwm Loj tau sab laj nrog cov thawj coj hauv zej zog. Kev txiav txim siab rau kev npaj cov kev tawm tsam hauv Serbia tawm rau Lub Rau Hli 23, 1941 ntawm lub rooj sib tham ntawm Pawg Neeg Sawv Cev rau Serbia. Lub Xya hli ntuj 5, ib tsab ntawv tshaj tawm tuaj koom sab nrauv tau tshwm sim uas tau hu rau cov neeg Serbian kom tawm tsam cov neeg txeeb chaw. Western Serbia tau raug xaiv los ua lub hauv paus ntawm kev tawm tsam , uas tom qab ntawd kis mus rau lwm thaj chaw hauv Serbia. Ib lub koom txoos luv luv tau tsim nyob hauv thaj chaw liberated sab hnub poob, thawj lub tebchaws muaj kev ywj pheej nyob hauv Europe. Qhov kev tawm tsam yog tsim los ntawm cov tub rog German los ntawm 29 Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1941. Lub Koom Haum Loj ntawm National Liberation Committee rau Serbia yog ntseeg tias tau tsim tsa hauv Užice rau 17 Kaum Ib Hlis 1941. Nws yog lub cev ntawm Partisan tsis kam nyob hauv Serbian thaj chaw.

Lub Anti-fascist Los Ua Ke rau National Liberation ntawm Serbia tau muaj hnub tim 9-12 lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1944.

Tito tom qab kev ua tsov ua rog tsoomfwv tsim ntau lub tuam tsev thiab chaw nco hauv Serbia tom qab kev ua rog.

Bosnia thiab Herzegovina

Serbian Partisan detachments nkag mus hauv Bosnian chaw uas zoo tom qab Kev Ua Haujlwm Uzice uas pom lub rooj txhawb siab Serbian tau tawm suab . Lub Tebchaws Partisans tau raug txo qis ntau thaum Kev Ua Haujlwm Trio (1942) ntawm kev tawm tsam nyob rau sab hnub tuaj Bosnia. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Croatia

Chij ntawm Tsoom Fwv Tebchaws Thaj Chaw ntawm Croatia, siv los ntawm Croatian Partisans thiab National Liberation Movement.

Lub teb chaws txoj kev ywj pheej hauv Tebchaws Croatia yog ib feem ntawm kev tawm tsam los ntawm tsoomfwv hauv tebchaws Yugislavia uas yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws los tiv thaiv Nazi kev tawm tsam [14] [15] coj los ntawm Yugoslav Revolution communist [13] thaum Lub Ntiaj Teb Thib Ob. Tsov Rog. NOP tau nyob hauv kev coj ntawm Pab Koomtes ntawm Pab Koomtes ntawm Yugoslavia (KPJ) thiab tau txais kev txhawb nqa los ntawm ntau lwm tus, nrog Croatian Peasant Party cov tswv cuab ua rau nws muaj txiaj ntsig zoo. Cov NOP muaj peev xwm tso tau ib ntus lossis mus tas li kev ywj pheej ntau qhov chaw ntawm Croatia los ntawm kev tswj hwm cov rog. Raws li NOP, Tsoom Fwv Tebchaws Tsoomfwv ntawm Croatia tau tsim tsa los ua tus tsim kev ywj pheej ntawm Tseemfwv Tebchaws Meskas Yugoslavia .

Lub dav hlau thiab cov txiv neej ntawm Balkan Air Force thaum lub sijhawm tshuaj xyuas los ntawm Marshal Josip Broz Tito .

Ib cag ntawm cov tub rog hauv av, Yugoslav Partisans tsuas muaj kev tiv thaiv kev tawm tsam nyob rau hauv cov teb chaws Europe uas muaj haujlwm ua haujlwm rau cov huab cua thiab tub rog tub rog loj. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Partisan Tub Rog

Naval quab yuam ntawm cov tsis kam tau tsim thaum ntxov li 19 Lub Cuaj Hli 1942, thaum Partisans hauv Dalmatia tsim lawv thawj cov tub rog ua tau ua los ntawm kev tawm nkoj, uas maj mam hloov zuj zus mus rau hauv lub zog uas muaj peev xwm los koom nrog Italian Navy thiab Kriegsmarine thiab ua cov haujlwm loj rau amphibious. Cov xwm txheej no tau raug suav hais tias yog lub hauv paus ntawm Yugoslav Navy . Thaum nws lub ncov thaum Lub Ntiaj Teb Tsov Rog Zaum II, Yugoslav Partisans 'Cov Tub Rog tau hais kom 9 lossis 10 lub nkoj tub rog, 30 tus tub rog caij nkoj, ze rau 200 tus pab txhawb nqa nkoj, rau lub roj teeb rau ntug dej hiav txwv, thiab ob peb tog neeg mus ncig ntawm cov koog pov txwv, thaj tsam 3,000 tus txiv neej. [suav qhov xav tau ] Hnub Tim 26 Lub Kaum Hli 1943, nws tau teeb tsa ua thawj ua plaub, thiab tom qab ntawd ua rau rau hauv, Maritime Coastal Sectors ( Pomorsko Obalni Sektor , POS). Txoj haujlwm ntawm cov tub rog ntawm lub nkoj yog kom muaj kev ruaj ntseg zoo ntawm hiav txwv, npaj kev tiv thaiv ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv thiab cov Islands tuaj, thiab tawm tsam cov yeeb ncuab hauv hiav txwv thiab cov tub rog nyob ntawm cov koog pov txwv thiab raws ntug hiav txwv. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Ntu Av Tub Rog Dag Zog

Cov Tog Neeg tau txais qhov zoo ntawm cov cua hauv lub Tsib Hlis 1942, thaum lub dav hlau ntawm ob lub dav hlau nyob nrog cov Pab Pawg Tub Rog Los Ntawm Lub Tebchaws Ywj Pheej ntawm Croatia (Fab Kis-tsim thiab Yugoslav-tsim Potez 25 , thiab Breguet 19 biplanes , lawv tus kheej yav tas los ntawm Royal Yugoslav Tub Rog Cua ), Franjo Kluz thiab Rudi Čajavec , ua rau cov neeg Parties hauv Bosnia. [70] Tom qab ntawd, cov kws sim no siv lawv cov dav hlau tiv thaiv Axis cov tub rog. Txawm hais tias luv luv nyob vim yog tsis muaj cov kev tsim kho vaj tse, qhov no yog thawj zaug ntawm kev tawm tsam muaj nws tus kheej lub zog cua. Tom qab ntawd, cov tub rog huab cua yuav rov tsim dua thiab rhuav tshem ob peb zaug kom txog thaum nws lub chaw ruaj khov. Cov Phaj Haum tom qab tau teeb tsa cov tub rog huab cua mus tas li los ntawm kev tau txais cov dav hlau, khoom siv, thiab kev kawm los ntawm ntes tau Axis cov dav hlau, Lub Tebchaws Askiv Royal Air Force (saib BAF ), thiab tom qab ntawd Lub Tebchaws Soviet Air Force . [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Cov tub rog ntawm 4 Montenegrin Proletarian Brigade

Yugoslav Partisans yog lub zog Serb feem ntau rau xyoo 1943. [71] [26] Tsis tas li ntawd, nws yuav tsum nco ntsoov tias txog thaum nruab nrab ntawm kev tsov rog cov Partis tau tswj hwm thaj chaw feem ntau uas muaj kev ywj pheej nyob hauv thaj chaw ntawm Bosnia nkaus xwb. [71] Tshaj tag nrho ntawm kev ua tsov ua rog raws li cov ntaub ntawv ntawm cov neeg tau txais nyiaj so haujlwm Partisan los ntawm xyoo 1977, cov neeg sib sau ua ke ntawm Partisans yog 53 feem pua ​​Serb, 18.6 feem pua ​​Croat, 9.2 feem pua ​​Slovene, 5.5 feem pua ​​Montenegrin, 3.5 feem pua ​​Bosnian Muslim, thiab 2.7 feem pua ​​Macedonian. [72] [73] Feem ntau ntawm cov khoom seem ntawm NOP tus tswvcuab tau ua los ntawm Albanians, Hungarians thiab cov neeg txheeb xyuas lawv tus kheej yog Yugoslavs. [72] [74] [75] Raws li Tito, los ntawm Lub Tsib Hlis 1944, cov neeg ntawm cov neeg sib sau yog 44 feem pua ​​Serb, 30 feem pua ​​Croat, 10 feem pua ​​Slovene, 5 feem pua ​​Montenegrin, 2.5 feem pua ​​Macedonian, thiab 2.5 feem pua ​​ntawm cov neeg Muslim. [76] Cov neeg Italians tseem nyob hauv pab tub rog: 20,000 tus neeg ntaus rog Italian tau nyob hauv 9 Corps (Yugoslav Partisans) , Partisan Pawg Neeg Tawm Tsam Pino Budicin , Phaj Poj Niam "Garibaldi" thiab Division Italia (Yugoslavia) tom qab. [77] Ua raws li Soviet-Bulgarian kev tawm tsam hauv Serbia thiab North Macedonia hauv lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo 1944, pawg Partisan sau npe ntawm Serbs, Macedonians thiab thaum kawg Kosovo Albanians nce. Cov naj npawb ntawm Serbian Partisan cov tub rog tau nce ntawm 28 thaum Lub Rau Hli 1944 txog 60 txog rau thaum xaus ntawm lub xyoo. Hauv cov lus hauv cheeb tsam, Partisan lub zog yog li ntawd qhov tsis txaus ntseeg sab hnub poob Yugoslav, tshwj xeeb los ntawm Croatia, thaum txog thaum lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo 1944, Serbia cov nyiaj pab tau muaj tsawg. [78] Lub sijhawm xyoo 1941 txog lub Cuaj Hli 1943 los ntawm Croatia thiab Bosnia thiab Herzegovina 1,064 ntawm cov neeg Yudais koom nrog Partisans, thiab feem ntau ntawm cov neeg Yudais koom nrog cov Partisans tom qab txoj cai tawm ntawm Ltalis xyoo 1943. Thaum xaus tsov rog 2,339 ntawm cov neeg Yudais Partisans los ntawm Croatia thiab Bosnia thiab Herzegovina muaj txoj sia nyob thaum 804 tau tuag. [79] Cov neeg Yudais feem coob uas koom nrog Yugoslav Partisans tau los ntawm Croatia thiab Bosnia thiab Herzegovina thiab raws li Romano tus lej no yog 4,572 thaum lawv 1318 raug tua. [80]

Raws li phau ntawv Encyclopedia ntawm Tsoom Fwv Teb Chaws Asmeskas Tuam Tsev Holocaust Memorial Museum,

Hauv kev faib Yugoslavia, cov ua haujlwm tiv thaiv kev tsim tawm ntawm cov Slovenia hauv German-koom hauv Slovenia, feem ntau koom nrog kev ua txhaum me me. Hauv Serbia, lub koom haum cetnik tawm tsam raug tsim los nyob hauv qab qub tub rog ntawm Yugoslav Army, Draža Mihailovic. Tom qab muaj kev puas tsuaj loj hauv qhov kev ntxeev siab nyob rau lub Rau Hli 1941, lub koom haum no ib txwm xav thim ntawm kev tawm tsam nrog Axis tuav cov tub rog. Lub Koom Haum Tebchaws uas muaj kev sib koom tes los ntawm kev coj ntawm Josef Tito yog ntau pawg neeg tawm tsam - suav nrog Serbs, Croats, Montenegrins, Bosniaks, Jewish, thiab Slovenes. Raws li feem ntau hauv Bosnia thiab qaum teb qaum teb Serbia, Tito cov neeg Partisans tau tawm tsam rau cov neeg German thiab Italians feem ntau tsis tu ncua thiab ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv kev tsav cov tub rog German tawm ntawm Yugoslavia xyoo 1945. [81]

Txog lub Plaub Hlis 1945, muaj muaj li ntawm 800,000 tus tub rog hauv pab tub rog Partisan. Kev sib xyaw los ntawm thaj av (haiv neeg tsis raug suav) txij li xyoo 1941 txog rau xyoo 1944 muaj raws li hauv qab no: [82]

Xyoo 1941Xyoo 1942Cuaj Hli Xyoo 1943Xyoo 1943Xyoo 1944
Bosnia thiab Herzegovina20.00060,00089,000108,000100,000
Croatia7,00048,00078,000122,000150,000
Serbia (Kosovo)5,000 leej6,0006,0007,00020.000
Macedonia1,0002,000 tus10,0007,00066,000
Montenegro22,0006,00010,00024,00030,000
Serbia (tsim nyog)23,0008,00013,00022,000204,000
Slovenia [83] [84] [85]2,000 tus4000600034,00038,000
Serbia (Vojvodina)1,0001,0003,0005,000 leej40,000
Tag Nrho81,000135,000215,000329,000648,000

Raws li Fabijan Trgo lub caij sov lub caij xyoo 1944 tau muaj Lub Tub Rog Liberation Army muaj kwv yees li 350,000 tub rog hauv 39 pawg, uas tau muab faib ua 12 lub Corps. Thaum lub Cuaj Hlis 1944 txog 100,000 cov tub rog hauv 17 pawg tau npaj txhij nkag mus rau theem kawg ntawm kev sib ntaus sib tua rau kev ywj pheej ntawm Serbia, tag nrho hauv txhua qhov chaw Yugoslav National Liberation Army muaj kwv yees li 400,000 tub rog. Ntawd yog, 15 lub chaw ua haujlwm, piv txwv li 50 pawg, 2 pab pawg ua haujlwm, 16 pawg tub rog ywj siab, 130 pawg sab nrauv, tub rog pab pawg thiab thawj cov aviation. Thaum pib xyoo 1945, cov tub rog muaj li ntawm 600,000 leej. Thaum Lub Peb Hlis 1, Yugoslav Cov tub rog muaj ntau dua 800,000 cov tub rog, pawg hauv 63 pawg. [86]

Cov Chetniks yog pawg pab pawg sab qab teb Serb thiab lawv cov kev nkag hauv lub tebchaws Serbia ua rau tsis muaj peev xwm nrhiav neeg los yog rov hais dua rau ntau yam uas tsis yog-Serbs. Cov tog neeg ua si cia kev sib nrog kev nyiam ntawm Lub Puag Ncig Cov Hauv Paus uas tau thov rau txhua Yugoslavs. Nyob rau hauv Bosnia, Partisan sib sau quaj yog rau lub teb chaws uas yuav tsum yog tsis yog tus twg Serbian lossis Croatian tsis yog Muslim, tab sis hloov mus yuav muaj kev ywj pheej thiab kev sib haum xeeb uas tag nrho cov kev sib txig sib luag ntawm txhua pawg yuav tau xyuas kom meej. [87] Txawm li cas los xij, Serbs tseem yog pawg neeg tseem ceeb hauv pawg Yugoslav Partisans thoob plaws hauv kev ua tsov rog. [88] [89] Italian kev koom tes nrog Chetniks nyob rau sab qaum teb Dalmatia ua rau kev ua siab phem uas ntxiv rau kev txhawb nqa rau Cov Ncauj Lus ntawm Dalmatian Croats. Chetnik tawm tsam Gata , ze rau Split , ua rau qee tus neeg 200 tus neeg tseemfwv hauv tebchaws pluag tuag. [90]

Hauv kev tshwj xeeb, Mussolini txoj cai ntawm kev yuam ua Italianization tau saib xyuas thawj cov neeg tseem ceeb ntawm Croats koom nrog Cov Ncauj Lus hauv xyoo 1941. Hauv lwm thaj chaw, kev xaiv cov neeg Croats raug cuam tshuam los ntawm qee yam ntawm Serbs 'nyiam saib lub koom haum raws li tshwj xeeb ntawm Serb, tsis lees paub tus tswvcuab ntawm Serb thiab raiding lub zos ntawm lawv cov neeg nyob ze Croat. [42] Ib pawg neeg Yudais cov tub ntxhais hluas los ntawm Sarajevo sim koom nrog Kev Sib Tw ntawm Partisan hauv Kalinovnik, tab sis Serbian Partisans tau xa lawv rov qab mus rau Sarajevo, uas ntau tus neeg tau ntes los ntawm Axis cov tub rog thiab tau tuag. [91] Kev tawm tsam los ntawm Croatian Ustaše ntawm cov pejxeem Serbian tau txiav txim siab ua ib qho ntawm cov laj thawj tseem ceeb rau kev sawv ntawm cov haujlwm tiv thaiv guerrilla, yog li pab cov kev tiv thaiv Partisan tsis kam loj hlob. [92] Ua raws li cov lus tshaj tawm ntawm Ltalis thiab tom ntej Belgrade Kev Ua Txhaum , ntau tus tswv cuab ntawm Ustaše koom nrog cov neeg koom nrog txoj haujlwm. [93]

Bosnia thiab Herzegovina

Chij ntawm Tsoomfwv Xeev ntawm Bosnia thiab Herzegovina , siv los ntawm Partisans hauv Bosnia thiab Herzegovina.

Thaum pib ntawm kev ua tsov ua rog, pawg tseem ceeb Serb muaj pes tsawg leej ntawm Partisan nyob qib thiab cov ntaub ntawv thiab kev sib koom tes nrog Chetniks, uas tau koom nrog kev ua phem thiab tua neeg ntawm Croatia thiab Muslim cov neeg txhaum, yuam Croats thiab Muslims tsis txhob koom nrog Partisan Bosnian. [94] Txog rau thaum ntxov xyoo 1942, Cov Pawxia hauv Bosnia thiab Herzegovina, uas yuav luag txhua tus ntawm Serbs, tau koom tes zoo nrog Chetniks, thiab qee tus neeg Partisans nyob sab hnub tuaj Herzegovina thiab sab hnub poob Bosnia tsis kam lees txais Muslims rau lawv qib. Rau ntau cov neeg Muslim, tus cwj pwm ntawm cov Serb Partisans rau lawv txhais tau hais tias muaj qhov sib txawv me me rau lawv ntawm Partisans thiab Chetniks. Txawm li cas los xij, hauv qee thaj chaw ntawm Bosnia thiab Herzegovina Cov Pej Xeem Partis tau ua tiav hauv kev nyiam ob tus neeg Muslims thiab Croats txij thaum pib, tshwj xeeb hauv Kozara Mountain thaj chaw qaum teb-sab hnub poob Bosnia thiab Romanija Mountain cheeb tsam ze Sarajevo. Hauv thaj tsam Kozara, Muslims thiab Croats ua 25 feem pua ​​ntawm Partisan lub zog los ntawm qhov kawg ntawm xyoo 1941. [95]

Raws li Hoare, los ntawm lig xyoo 1943, 70% ntawm Cov Neeg Partis nyob hauv Bosnia thiab Herzegovina yog Serb thiab 30% yog Croat thiab Muslim. [96] Thaum kawg ntawm xyoo 1977, cov neeg tau txais nyiaj los ntawm Bosnian muaj 64.1% Serb, 23% Muslim, thiab 8.8% Croat. [97]

Croatia

Croatian Partisan daim ntawv tshaj tawm: " Txhua tus neeg nkag rau hauv kev sib ntaus rau kev ywj pheej ntawm Croatia ! "

Xyoo 1941–42, feem ntau ntawm Cov Pwm Loj hauv Tebchaws Croatia yog Serbs, tab sis thaum Lub Kaum Hlis 1943 feem coob yog Croats. Qhov kev hloov pauv no qee vim yog kev txiav txim siab ntawm ib tus tseem ceeb Croatian Peasant Party tus tswv cuab, Božidar Magovac , los koom nrog Cov Pej Xeem thaum lub Rau Hli 1943, thiab ib feem vim los ntawm kev swb lub tebchaws Ltalis. [98] Lub sijhawm ntawm txoj cai capitulation ntawm Ltalis mus rau Allies Cov Serbs thiab Croats tau koom nrog sib luag raws li lawv cov pejxeem qhov ntau thiab tsawg hauv Yugoslavia tag nrho. [99] Raws li Goldstein, ntawm Croatian partisans qhov kawg ntawm xyoo 1941, 77% yog Serbs thiab 21,5% yog Croats, thiab lwm tus neeg tsis paub lub tebchaws. Qhov feem pua ​​ntawm Croats nyob rau hauv Partisans tau nce mus rau 32% thaum Lub Yim Hli 1942, thiab 34% rau Lub Cuaj Hli 1943. Tom qab txoj cai ntawm Ltalis, nws tau nce ntxiv. Qhov kawg ntawm xyoo 1944 muaj 60.4% Croats, 28.6% Serbs thiab 11% ntawm lwm haiv neeg (2.8% Muslims, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Italians, Hungarians, Czechs, Jewish thiab Volksdeutsche ) hauv Croatian partisan units. [76] [100] Raws li Ivo Banac , lub Croatian Partisan lub zog nyob rau lub sijhawm thib ob ntawm xyoo 1944 muaj txog li 150,000 tus neeg tiv thaiv nyob hauv riam phom, thaum 100,070 nyob hauv cov haujlwm ua haujlwm uas Croats suav 60,703 (60.66%), Serbs 24,528 (24.51%), Slovenes 5,113 (5.11%), thiab lwm yam. [101] Cov nyiaj tau los ntawm Serb rau Croatian Partisans sawv cev ntau dua li ntawm lawv cov kev faib ua feem ntawm cov neeg hauv zos. [42] [102] [103] [104].

Croatian Partisans yog qhov tseem ceeb rau tagnrho Yugoslav Partisans nrog Cov Neeg Qog Croats hauv txoj haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv kev txav txij thaum pib kev ua tsov ua rog; Raws li qee cov kws tshawb fawb sau thaum lub sijhawm xyoo 1990, zoo li Cohen, los ntawm qhov kawg ntawm xyoo 1943, Croatia kom tsim nyog, nrog 24% ntawm Yugoslav cov pej xeem, muab ntau Partisans dua li Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia thiab Macedonia ua ke (txawm tias tsis ntau tshaj Bosnia thiab Herzegovina). [42] Thaum xyoo 1943 Cov Neeg Zej Zog tau sawv los tsim ZAVNOH (National Anti-Fascist Council ntawm Tib Neeg Kev Tawm Tsam ntawm Croatia) los ua tus cev sawv cev rau txhua tus ntawm Croatia - tsuas yog ib qho ntawm nws hom hauv tebchaws Europe. ZAVNOH tau tuav peb zaug sib tham thaum muaj tsov rog hauv thaj chaw uas tseem muaj cov tub rog Axis nyob ib puag ncig. Nyob rau ntawm nws qhov kev sib kho plaub thiab zaum kawg, muaj nyob rau 24-25 Lub Xya Hli 1945 hauv Zagreb, ZAVNOH tshaj tawm nws tus kheej li Croatian Parliament lossis Sabor . [105]

Thaum kawg ntawm xyoo 1941 nyob hauv thaj chaw ntawm NDH, Serbs muaj kwv yees li ib feem peb ntawm cov pej xeem tab sis kwv yees li 95% ntawm tag nrho Cov Neeg Ib Leeg. [106] Cov lej ntawm cov lej no tsawg dua tom qab, tab sis txog rau xyoo 1943 Serbs tsim tau feem ntau ntawm Partisans hauv Croatia (suav nrog Dalmatia). [106] Thaj chaw hauv Croatia tsim nyog nrog ntau tus neeg ntawm Serb cov neeg (Lika, Banija, Kordun) tau tsim cov khoom tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm manpower rau Cov Neeg Partis. [78] Thaum Lub Tsib Hlis 1941 Ustasha tus tub rog tau muab sab qaum teb Dalmatia rau Fascist Ltalis, uas ua rau muaj kev txhawb nqa ntau dua rau cov Neeg Ntse ntawm Cov Croats ntawm Dalmatia. Hauv lwm qhov chaw ntawm Croatia Kev txhawb nqa mus rau Cov Neeg Partis maj mam nce vim yog Ustasha thiab Axis cov kev kub ntxhov thiab kev tsis ncaj ncees, tab sis ntau qeeb dua li hauv Dalmatia. [99] Tsuas muaj 1,492 Partisans los ntawm Serbia tawm ntawm 22,148 Partisans ntawm Tito pawg Cov Haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm Kev Sib Tham ntawm Dej Sutjeska thaum Lub Rau Hli 1943, thiab 8,925 yog los ntawm Croatia (ntawm uas 5,195 yog los ntawm Dalmatia), tab sis nyob rau hauv haiv neeg lus, 11,851 yog Serbs tawm tsam 5,220 Croats. [99] Thaum kawg ntawm 1943 tag nrho 13 Dalmatian Partisan brigades muaj cov neeg feem coob Croatia, tab sis ntawm 25 Lub Partisan brigades los ntawm Croatian tsim nyog (tsis muaj Dalmatia) tsuas yog 7 muaj Croat feem ntau (17 muaj feem ntau ntawm Serb thiab ib tug muaj Czech feem ntau) Cov. [99] Raws li keeb kwm Tvrtko Jakovina thiab Davor Marijan lub ntsiab tseem ceeb rau kev koom nrog loj heev ntawm Croats hauv Kev sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Sutjeska thaum Lub Rau Hli 1943 yog qhov kev ntshai ntawm Italian fascists. [107]

Raws li Tito, ib-peb lub hlis twg ntawm Zagreb cov pej xeem piv txwv li ntau dua 50,000 tus pej xeem tau koom nrog kev tawm tsam Partisan thaum lub sijhawm tshaj 20,000 ntawm lawv raug tua (ib nrab ntawm lawv yog cov neeg tawm tsam). [108] Raws li Partisan cov tub rog tiv thaiv 4,709 cov pej xeem hauv Zagreb raug tua thaum 15,129 raug tua nyob rau hauv Ustasha thiab Nazi tsev loj cuj thiab cov chaw pw hav zoov, thiab lwm 6,500 raug tua thaum lub sijhawm tawm tsam kev tawm tsam. [78]

Thaum kawg qhov kev tawm tsam rau kev dim daws ntawm Yugoslavia, los ntawm Croatia tau koom nrog 165,000 cov tub rog feem ntau ua rau kev ywj pheej ntawm Croatia. Ntawm thaj chaw Croatian tom qab 30 Kaum Ib Hlis 1944 hauv kev tawm tsam nrog cov yeeb ncuab tau koom nrog 5 lub cev, 15 pawg, 54 pab tub rog thiab 35 Ntu cov tub rog, tag nrho ntawm 121,341 cov tub rog (117,112 tus txiv neej thiab 4239 tus poj niam) uas thaum kawg ntawm xyoo 1944 tau ua txog feem peb ntawm tag nrho cov tub rog ntawm National Liberation Army. Tib lub sijhawm, nyob rau thaj chaw ntawm Croatia muaj 340,000 ntawm cov tub rog German, 150,000 ntawm Ustasha thiab Cov Tub Rog Saib Xyuas Tsev thaum Chetniks thaum pib ntawm 1945 tau thim rov qab rau Slovenia. Raws li cov haiv neeg muaj pes tsawg leeg ntawm Partisans, feem ntau yog Croats 73,327 lossis 60.40%, tom qab ntawd Serbs 34,753 lossis 28.64%, Muslims 3,316 lossis 2.75%, neeg Yudais 284 lossis 0.25% thiab Slovenes, Montenegrins thiab lwm tus nrog 9,671 lossis 7.96%, (naj npawb ntawm Lub rooj ncauj lus thiab haiv neeg tsis suav nrog 9 pawg tub rog uas tau koom ua ke sab nrauv ntawm Croatia). [109]

Seev

Thaum txog lub Cuaj Hlis 1941, tau tsim 24 lub tsev soj ntsuam nrog kwv yees li 14,000 cov tub rog. [110] Thaum kawg ntawm xyoo 1943, 97 Cov Tub Rog Caij Tsheb feem ntau muaj tag nrho, thaum nyob ntawm thaj chaw sab hnub tuaj ntawm Yugoslavia (Vojvodina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo thiab Macedonia) 18 Lub ntsej muag muaj ib pawg tub rog. [111] Hauv Serbia thaum lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav thiab lub caij ntuj sov xyoo 1944, ntau tus Chetnik cov neeg tawm suab thiab cov neeg raug txim koom nrog cov koog Partisans. [112] Thaum lub Soviets tso lub teb chaws Serbia kawg ntawm xyoo 1944, pawg neeg Partisan tau tsim kom muaj neeg ntawm Serbia, Macedonians thiab thaum kawg Kosovo Albanians tau pib, uas ua rau muaj kev sib txig sib luag ntawm thaj tsam sab hnub tuaj thiab sab hnub poob Yugoslav Partisan. Serbia cov nyiaj pab rau Partisan lub zog ua ntej lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo 1944 muaj qhov sib txawv me me. [113] Thaum lub Cuaj Hlis 1944, Serbia muaj txog 70,000 tus tub rog nyob rau hauv kev tswj hwm ntawm Cov Thawj Tub Ceev Xwm ntawm Serbia uas nyob hauv 13 lub Corps muaj txog 30,000 tub rog, nyob hauv 14 lub Corps 32,463 cov tub rog thiab hauv Tub Ceev Xwm thib 2 4,600 tus tub rog. [114]

Slovenia

Chij ntawm txoj kev ywj pheej Pem Hauv Ntej Tebchaws Slovene , siv los ntawm Partisans hauv Slovenia
Lub Triglavka cap

Thaum Tsov Rog Thoob Ntiaj Teb thib II, Slovenia nyob hauv ib qho xwm txheej tshwj xeeb hauv Tebchaws Europe. Tsuas yog tim Nkij teb chaws tau sib koom nws qhov kev paub ntawm kev ua tsis raug cai; txawm li cas los xij, Slovenia tsuas yog tib lub tebchaws uas tau ntsib ib kauj ruam txuas ntxiv - nqus thiab txuas ntxiv mus rau lub tebchaws Nazi nyob ze Tebchaws Yelemees, Fascist Ltalis , thiab Hungary . [115] Vim tias muaj ntau yam hauv lub tebchaws Slovenia raug teeb meem, txoj kev txhawb ntawm Slovene rau Partisan tau muaj ntau dua li hauv Croatia lossis Serbia. [97] Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev tiv thaiv ntawm haiv neeg tus kheej tau qhia los ntawm kev tis npe rau cov tub rog tom qab tseem ceeb cov kws sau paj huam thiab neeg sau ntawv, ua raws li piv txwv ntawm Ivan Cankar pawg tub rog. [116]

Thaum lub sijhawm thaum pib Cov Tub Rog yog cov me, tsis muaj riam phom thiab tsis muaj vaj tse, tab sis Spanish Civil War Cov Tub Rog nyob hauv lawv tau muaj qee qhov kev tawm tsam kev ua tsov rog . Lub zog ntawm Partisan hauv Slovenia ua haujlwm ua tub rog ntawm pab tub rog Liberation Front ntawm lub teb chaws Slovene , ib qho kev tawm tsam tiv thaiv Fashist lub luag haujlwm tau tsim nyob hauv lub xeev Ljubljana ntawm 26 Lub Plaub Hlis 1941, uas Ameslikas muaj ntau pab pawg ntawm sab laug tis, feem ntau pom tau hais tias yog Nom Tswv Zov thiab Cov Ntseeg Khub Kas Tos Liv. Lub sijhawm ua tsov rog, lub tebchaws ntawm lub tebchaws Communist ntawm Slovenia tau pib loj hlob, txog thaum nws qhov kev tshaj tawm txoj cai tau raug txiav tawm hauv daim ntawv tshaj tawm Dolomiti ntawm 1 Lub Peb Hlis 1943. [117] Qee tus tswvcuab ntawm Liberation Front thiab cov koom ua pab pawg tau raug rho tawm haujlwm. ntawm TIGR tsis kam lub zog.

Cov sawv cev ntawm txhua pawg kasmoos hauv Liberation Front tau koom nrog hauv Plenum ntawm Liberation Front, uas tau coj cov kev tawm tsam hauv Tebchaws Slovenia. Supreme Plenum tau ua haujlwm kom txog thaum 3 Lub Kaum Hlis 1943 thaum, ntawm Lub Rooj Sib Tham ntawm Slovenian Nation's Cov Neeg Sawv Cev hauv Kočevje, 120 tus neeg koom nrog Liberation Front Plenum tau raug xaiv los ua tus thawj coj zoo tshaj plaws ntawm Slovenian Liberation Front. Lub plenum tseem ua haujlwm xws li Slovenian National Liberation Committee, txoj cai zoo tshaj plaws hauv Slovenia. Qee tus kws sau keeb kwm xav txog Kočevje Cov Rooj Sib Tham los ua thawj lub Slovenia xaiv tsa pawg thawjcoj thiab Slovene Partisans raws li nws cov neeg sawv cev kuj koom rau 2 ntu ntawm AVNOJ thiab yog cov tseem ceeb hauv ntxiv cov lus txiav txim siab rau tus kheej rau kev daws teeb meem ntawm kev tsim tsoomfwv Yugoslavia tshiab. Lub rooj sib tham ntawm Liberation Front Plenum tau pauv npe lub Slovenian National Liberation Council ntawm lub rooj sib tham hauv Črnomelj thaum 19 Lub Ob Hlis 1944 thiab hloov mus rau lub parliament ntawm Slovenian. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

The Slovene Partisans khaws lawv cov kev teeb tsa tshwj xeeb thiab Slovenia cov lus ua cov lus hais kom txog rau thaum lub hlis dhau los ntawm Kev Tsov Rog Thoob Ntiaj Teb Zaum 2, thaum lawv cov lus raug muab tshem tawm raws li cov lus hais kom ua. Txij xyoo 1942 txog tom qab xyoo 1944, lawv hnav lub Triglavka cap, uas tom qab ntawd maj mam hloov nrog Titovka cap ua ib feem ntawm lawv cov khaub ncaws. [118] Lub Peb Hlis 1945, Cov Koom Haum ntawm Slovenia Partisan tau tsim ua ke nrog Yugoslav Army thiab thiaj li tau ploj mus nyob ua ib pawg cais. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Cov haujlwm nyob hauv tebchaws Slovenia tau pib xyoo 1941 thiab muaj kev ywj pheej ntawm Tito cov koom tes nyob rau sab qab teb. Nyob rau lub caij nplooj zeeg xyoo 1942, Tito tau sim thawj zaug los tswj lub zog ntawm txoj kev tiv thaiv txoj kev tawm tsam Slovene. Arsa Jovanović , tus thawj coj Yugoslav nplog uas raug xa los ntawm Tito's Supreme Command ntawm Yugoslav partisan tiv thaiv, xaus nws lub luag haujlwm los tsim kev tswj hwm lub xeev feem ntawm tsoomfwv Slovenia tsis ua tiav thaum lub Plaub Hlis 1943. Kev sib koom ua ke ntawm Slovene Partisans nrog Tito lub zog tau tshwm sim xyoo 1944. [119 ] [120]

Thaum Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1943, Lub Tsev Kho Mob Franja Partisan tau tsim tsa hauv qhov chaw nyuaj thiab tsis zoo, tsuas yog ob peb teev los ntawm Austria thiab thaj chaw nruab nrab ntawm lub Tebchaws Yelemees. Cov neeg faib tau tshaj tawm lawv tus kheej lub xov tooj cua xov tooj cua hu ua Xov Xwm Xov Xwm Kričač , qhov chaw uas ib txwm tsis tau paub txog kev ua tub rog, txawm hais tias cov kav hlau txais xov los ntawm cov pej xeem hauv zos tau raug txhav tawm. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Txawm hais tias lawv ua tiav, Cov Neeg Partis tau raug mob hnyav thoob plaws hauv kev ua rog. Lub rooj piav qhia txog Kev Poob ntawm Lub Tebchaws, 7 Lub Xya Hli 1941 - 16 Tsib Hli 1945: [102] [103] [104]

Xyoo 1941Xyoo 1942Xyoo 1943Xyoo 1944Xyoo 1945Tag Nrho
Raug tua nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim18,89624,70048,37880,65072,925245,549
Raug mob hauv kev txiav txim29,30031,20061,730147,650130,000399,880
Tuag los ntawm mob3,1274,1947,9238,0667,80031,200
Ploj lawm hauv kev nqis tes ua3,800 Cov6,3005,4235,6007,80028,925

Raws li Ivo Goldstein , 82,000 Serbs thiab 42,000 Tus Croats raug tua nyob rau ntawm NDH cov chaw uas yog cov neeg sib ntaus sib tua. [121]

Cov Neeg Ntsej Muag tau muaj lub luag haujlwm ua kom muaj kev vam meej thiab txhawb nqa kev khiav tawm ntawm cov rog Allied airmen los ntawm Balkans. Piv txwv li, thaum lub Ib Hlis 1 Lub Kaum Hli 15 txog Lub Kaum Hli 1944, raws li kev suav sau los ntawm US Air Force Air Crew Rescue Unit, 1,152 tus neeg Asmeskas huab cua tau ya los ntawm Yugoslavia, 795 nrog Partisan kev pab thiab 356 nrog kev pab los ntawm Chetniks. [122] Yugoslav Partisans hauv Slovene thaj chaw cawm tau 303 tus neeg Asmeskas neeg Asmeskas, 389 tus tub rog Askiv thiab neeg raug kaw hauv kev ua tsov ua rog, thiab 120 tus neeg Fabkis thiab lwm tus neeg raug kaw ua tsov ua rog thiab ua haujlwm qhev. [123]

Cov Neeg Pej Xeem kuj tau pab pua pua ntawm Allied cov tub rog uas ua tiav ntawm kev khiav tawm ntawm German POW chaw pw hav zoov (feem ntau nyob rau sab qab teb Austria) thoob plaws kev ua tsov ua rog, tab sis tshwj xeeb los ntawm 1943 txog 1945. Cov no tau thauj thoob plaws Slovenia, los ntawm qhov chaw uas coob leej tau caij nkoj los ntawm Semič , thaum lwm tus ua ntev overland taug kev hla dhau ntawm Croatia rau lub nkoj hla kev mus rau Bari hauv Ltalis. Nyob rau lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav xyoo 1944, Tebchaws Askiv cov tub rog txoj haujlwm hauv Slovenia tau tshaj tawm tias muaj "kev tseb, maj mam" ntawm cov neeg khiav tawm ntawm cov chaw pw no. Lawv tau raug pab los ntawm cov pej xeem hauv zej zog, thiab ntawm kev tiv tauj cov neeg Partisans ntawm txoj kab dav dav ntawm River Drava , lawv tuaj yeem ua lawv txoj hauv kev nyab xeeb nrog Cov Lus Qhia Partisan. [ yuav tsum muaj kev sau ntawv ]

Raid ntawm Ožbalt

Tag nrho ntawm 132 Allied cov neeg raug kaw hauv kev ua tsov ua rog tau cawm tawm los ntawm cov neeg German los ntawm Cov Neeg Partisans hauv ib txoj haujlwm nkaus xwb thaum Lub Yim Hli 1944 hauv qhov kev paub tias yog Raid ntawm Ožbalt . Lub Rau Hli 1944, Lub Koom Haum Allied khiav dim tau pib muaj kev txaus siab los pab rau cov neeg raug kaw hauv tsev pheebsuab nyob rau yav qab teb Austria thiab khiav tawm lawv los ntawm Yugoslavia. Ib qho xov xwm ntawm Allied lub hom phiaj nyob rau sab qaum teb Slovenia tau pom tias ntawm Ožbalt , tsuas yog nyob ntawm Austrian sab ciam teb, thaj tsam li 50 km (31 mi) los ntawm Maribor , muaj qhov chaw tiv thaiv tsis zoo ntawm lub chaw ua haujlwm los ntawm qhov kev tua los ntawm Slovene Partisans tuaj yeem tso dawb txhua tus raug kaw. Tshaj 100 POWs tau thauj los ntawm Stalag XVIII-D ntawm Maribor mus rau Ožbalt txhua tag kis los ua cov haujlwm kho cov tsheb ciav hlau, thiab rov qab mus rau lawv cov chaw hauv yav tsaus ntuj. Kev sib cuag tau yog nyob ntawm Partisans thiab cov neeg raug kaw nrog qhov txiaj ntsig hais tias thaum kawg ntawm lub Yim Hli ib pawg ntawm xya ntog mus rau yav dhau los ntawm ib tus neeg tsaug zog thaum 15:00, thiab thaum 21:00 cov txiv neej ua kev zoo siab nrog cov Partisans hauv ib lub zos, 8 km (5.0 mi) deb ntawm Yugoslav sab ntawm ciam teb. [124]

Xya tus khiav dim tau nrog Cov Koos Ruam rau lwm cov mus pw hav zoov kom tau txais kev ywj pheej rau hnub tom qab. Tom qab no thaum sawv ntxov, lub xya rov los nrog ib puas Partisans los tos kom tuaj txog ntawm kev ua haujlwm-tog los ntawm cov tsheb ciav hlau li niaj zaus. Sai li sai tau kev ua haujlwm tau pib Lub Rooj Sab Laj, txhawm rau hais tawm New Zealand qhov muag-pov thawj, "tau nrawm nqes saum roob thiab tshem tawm ntawm kaum yim tus neeg tiv thaiv". Nyob rau hauv ib lub sijhawm luv luv cov neeg raug kaw, neeg zov, thiab cov neeg saib xyuas pej xeem tau raug thawb nrog txoj kev uas siv los ntawm thawj xya tus neeg raug kaw hauv yav tsaus ntuj dhau los. Nyob rau ntawm thawj lub hauv paus chaw haujlwm mus txog, cov ntsiab lus raug coj los ntawm tag nrho ntawm 132 tus neeg raug kaw hauv qhov taub rau xov tooj cua mus rau Askiv. Kev ua tiav raws txoj kev khiav tawm sab qab teb yog qhov nyuaj, vim cov neeg German ncig xyuas tau zoo heev. Ib hmos kev nyas tua los ntawm ib qho kev soj ntsuam mob tshwm sim los ntawm kev poob ntawm ob tus neeg raug kaw thiab ob ntawm cov neeg khiav nkaum. Nws thiaj li lawv mus txog Semič , hauv White Carniola , Slovenia, uas yog qhov chaw Partisan tau txais kev noj haus rau POWs. Lawv tau ya hla mus rau Bari rau 21 Lub Cuaj Hli 1944 los ntawm tshav dav hlau ntawm Otok ze Gradac . [124]

SFR Yugoslavia yog ib qho ntawm ob lub tebchaws nyob sab Europe nkaus xwb uas tau muaj kev ywj pheej ntau los ntawm nws lub zog thaum Tsov Rog Ntiaj Teb Zaum II. Nws tau txais kev pab tseem ceeb los ntawm Soviet Union thaum lub sijhawm dim ntawm Serbia , thiab kev pab loj los ntawm Balkan Air Force los ntawm nruab nrab xyoo 1944, tab sis tsuas yog kev pab tsawg, feem ntau yog los ntawm Askiv, ua ntej xyoo 1944. Thaum kawg ntawm kev tsov rog tsis muaj tub rog txawv teb chaws. twb nyob ntawm nws cov av. Ib nrab yog vim li cas, lub tebchaws pom nws tus kheej li ib nrab ntawm ob lub khaib ntawm qhov pib ntawm Tsov Rog Txias .

Xyoo 1947–48, Soviet lub zog sim ua kom muaj kev mloog lus los ntawm Yugoslavia, feem ntau hais txog teeb meem ntawm kev txawv teb chaws txoj cai, uas ua rau Tito-Stalin sib cais thiab yuav luag tiv thaiv kev tsis sib haum xeeb. Ib lub sijhawm ntawm kev sib raug zoo heev nrog lub tebchaws Soviet txuas ntxiv, thaum lub sijhawm Asmeskas thiab Askiv tau xav txog kev ua si Yugoslavia rau hauv tebchaws NATO tshiab . Qhov no txawm li cas los xij hloov xyoo 1953 nrog Trieste teebmeem, kev tsis sib haum xeeb ntawm Yugoslavia thiab Western Allies tshaj qhov xwmtxheej Yugoslav-Italian ciam teb (saib Thaj Chaw Dawb Trieste ), thiab nrog Yugoslav-Soviet kev sib raug zoo hauv 1956. Qhov xwm txheej no thaum pib Kev Tsov Rog Txias tau dhau los ua txoj cai tsis txawv teb chaws txoj cai uas Yugoslavia nquag ua kom txog thaum nws tau txhim kho.

Lub siab deev

Cov Partis tua neeg pov tseg rau lub sijhawm thiab tom qab ua tsov rog. [125] Hnub 27 Lub Xya Hli 1941, Lub Koom Txoos Part -an tau tua neeg nyob ib ncig ntawm 100 cov neeg tawg rog hauv Croatansko Grahovo thiab 300 hauv Trubar thaum lub sijhawm Drvar tawm tsam NDH. [126] Nruab nrab ntawm 5-8 Lub Cuaj Hli 1941, qee thaj tsam 1,000-3,000 Muslim cov tub rog thiab cov tub rog, suav nrog 100 Croats raug tua los ntawm Partisan Drvar Brigade. [127] Ntau pawg ntawm Partisan, thiab cov pej xeem hauv zos nyob rau qee thaj chaw, tau koom nrog kev tua neeg loj nyob rau lub sijhawm tam sim ntawv tom qab lub sijhawm POWs thiab lwm tus pom tau tias Axis cov neeg txhawb siab, koom tes nrog, thiab / lossis fascists nrog rau lawv cov txheeb ze, suav nrog menyuam. Cov kab mob tua neeg no muaj xws li Foibe tua neeg , Tezno tua neeg pov tseg , Macelj tua neeg pov tseg , Kočevski Rog tua neeg pov tseg , Barbara Pit tua neeg pov tseg thiab cov neeg nplog sib tua neeg huv Serbia xyoo 1944-45 .

Cov kev rov qab tawm ntawm Bleiburg (txawm tias cov kws tshawb fawb tsis pom zoo pes tsawg tus neeg tuag thiab tsis muaj tus naj npawb tau lees paub lossis pom zoo) ntawm kev rov qab txhua pawg ntawm Chetnik thiab Slovene Cov Tub Rog Saib Xyuas Tsev , thiab cov tub rog ntawm Tub Rog ntawm lub xeev ntawm Croatia thiab ntau txhiab leej. cov neeg khiav nkaum lossis rov qab los ntawm Austria rau kev zwm rau sab hnub poob Allied rog, tau hu ua "kev tua neeg". Qhov "foibe massacres" kos lawv lub npe los ntawm cov "foibe" pits nyob rau hauv uas Croatian Partisans ntawm Thib 8 Dalmatian Corps (feem ntau nrog rau pawg neeg npau taws ntawm cov neeg hauv ib cheeb tsam) tau tua Italian fascists, thiab xav tias cov neeg sib koom tes thiab / lossis cov neeg cais tawm. Raws li kev sib xyaw ua ke ntawm Slovenia-Italian keeb kwm kev tsim cai [128] tsim nyob rau xyoo 1993, uas tshawb xyuas tsuas yog muaj dab tsi tshwm sim nyob rau hauv cov chaw muaj nyob rau niaj hnub tam sim no Ltalis thiab Slovenia, kev tua neeg zoo li ua tiav los ntawm kev sim kom tshem cov neeg txuas nrog kev nyiam (tsis hais lawv tus kheej lub luag haujlwm), thiab sim ua qhov haujlwm loj tua neeg ntawm qhov tseeb, muaj peev xwm lossis tsuas yog cov neeg tawm tsam ntawm tsoomfwv. Xyoo 1944-1945 kev tua neeg hauv Bačka yog qhov zoo sib xws thiab tau tua tus neeg uas xav tias muaj neeg Hungarian, German thiab Serbian, thiab lawv cov koom nrog cov neeg tsis ntseeg siab, tsis hais txog lawv lub luag haujlwm. Thaum lub sijhawm ntxuav tawm no, coob leej neeg ntawm cov neeg sib raug zoo los ntawm pawg neeg raug mob raug tuag tib yam nkaus. [129] [ phab xav tau ]

Cov Neeg Partis tsis muaj daim ntawv pov thawj hais txog kev sib sau ntawm lawv cov yeeb ncuab thiab lawv qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws yog "kev ua kwv ua tij thiab kev sib koom siab " ntawm txhua haiv neeg Yugoslav (cov lus tau dhau los ua cov ntsiab lus rau Yugoslavia tshiab). Lub teb chaws raug kev txom nyem nruab nrab ntawm 900,000 thiab 1,150,000 tus neeg sib xws thiab tub rog tuag thaum lub sijhawm txoj haujlwm Axis. [130] Nyob nruab nrab ntawm 80,000 thiab 100,000 tus neeg raug tua nyob rau hauv kev faib ua txhaum thiab tsawg kawg 30,000 cov neeg raug tua nyob rau hauv Bleiburg tua neeg, raws li Marcus Tanner hauv nws txoj haujlwm, Croatia: ib lub tebchaws rau Kev Ua Rog .

Tshooj lus ntawm Partisan keeb kwm no yog ib qho kev kawm txog kev sib tham hauv SFR Yugoslavia kom txog rau thaum 1980s, thiab vim li no, xyoo lawm ntawm kev hais lus tsis meej tau tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm cov ntaub ntawv ntau rau kev tswj hwm kev tawm tsam. [131]

Thawj caj npab me me rau Lub Rooj Sab Laj tau los ntawm lub swb Royal Yugoslav Army , zoo li M24 Mauser phom . Thoob plaws hauv tsov rog lub Partisans siv tej riam phom lawv yuav nrhiav tau, feem ntau riam phom yuav los ntawm lub Germans , Italians , Army ntawm lub NDH , Ustaše thiab cov Chetniks , xws li cov Karabiner 98k phom loj, MP 40 submachine phom, MG 34 tshuab rab phom, Carcano phom thiab carbines thiab Beretta submachine phom. Lwm txoj kev uas Partis yuav tau siv riam phom yog los ntawm cov khoom siv muab rau lawv los ntawm Soviet Union thiab United Kingdom, suav nrog PPSh-41 thiab Sten MKII submachine phom feem. Tsis tas li ntawd, Lub Rooj Sib Tham Partisan tau tsim lawv tus kheej cov riam phom ua qauv ntawm cov riam phom ua haujlwm hauv tsev lag luam uas twb tau siv lawm, suav nrog kev sib tua "Partisan phom" thiab lub tshuab thaiv "Partisan cug".

Kozarčanka los ntawm Žorž Skrigin (lub caij ntuj no 1943–44)

Yugoslav Partisans tau tsa ntau tus poj niam. [132] Yugoslav National Liberation Movement tau thov 6,000,000 tus neeg txhawb pab pej xeem; nws ob lab tus poj niam tsim Antifascist Front ntawm Cov Poj Niam (AFŽ), nyob rau hauv uas cov kiv puag ncig nrog cov tsoos. AFŽ tswj cov tsev kawm ntawv, tsev kho mob thiab tseem fwv hauv nroog. Txog 100,000 cov poj niam tau ua haujlwm nrog 600,000 tus txiv neej hauv Tito's Yugoslav National Liberation Army. Nws nyuab siab nws txoj kev mob siab rau poj niam txoj cai thiab poj niam txiv neej sib luag thiab siv cov kev xav ntawm cov dab neeg poj ntxoog coj los nyiam thiab tsim qauv ntawm tus poj niam (Partisan Woman). [132] [133] Tom qab kev ua tsov rog, cov poj niam tau rov qab los ua lub luag haujlwm ntawm poj niam txiv neej, tab sis Yugoslavia yog qhov tshwj xeeb raws li nws cov keeb kwm tau mob siab rau poj niam lub luag haujlwm hauv kev tawm tsam, kom txog rau thaum lub teb chaws tsoo xyoo 1990. Tom qab ntawd txoj kev nco ntawm cov poj niam tub rog faded deb. [134] [135]

Nom tswv

Qhov ntxa ntawm Marshall Josip Broz Tito , Tus Thawj Tub Ceev Xwm ntawm Cov Tub Ntxhais Tub Ntxhais Sab Nraud, sab hauv lub tsev mausoleum mausoleum.

Partisan cov qub txeeg qub teg yog qhov kev sib cav ntau thiab kev tsis sib haum xeeb vim yog qhov tshwm sim ntawm haiv neeg haiv neeg dhau xyoo 1980s thiab 1990s thaum ntxov. [136] [137] Keeb kwm kev saib xyuas lub neej tom qab kev tawg ntawm Yugoslavia tau muab tshem tawm txoj kev txav txoj kev tsis sib haum xeeb nyob rau hauv kev txhim kho tom qab kev sib txuas lus sociopolitical. Cov ntaub ntawv kho dua keeb kwm yav dhau los no tau ua rau Tus Partisan lub luag haujlwm hauv Kev Tsov Rog Thoob Ntiaj Teb thib ob feem ntau tsis quav ntsej, cuam tshuam lossis raug tawm tsam tsis dhau hauv xeev cov nom tswv. [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143]

Txawm hais tias muaj kev hloov pauv hauv zej zog rau kev tawm tsam Partisan yeej tseem pom thoob plaws hauv lub tebchaws Yugoslavia , thiab tau koom nrog cov koom haum qub tub rog, cov xeeb leej xeeb ntxwv, Titoists , sab laug thiab cov neeg nyiam tuaj koom. [144] [145]

Liberators ntawm Belgrade memorial

Cov ceg qub txuas ntxiv ntawm Cov Koom Haum Qub Tub Rog ntawm Tib Neeg Tsov Rog Tub Rog Tawm Tsam (SUBNOR), sawv cev rau cov tub rog Partisan hauv txhua lub koom pheej thiab chaw tos txais kev tawm tsam kev nom kev tswv thiab kev cai lij choj rov qab los ntawm kev sib koom tes ua tsov ua rog Cov koom haum no tseem muaj cov kev coj noj coj ua thiab memorials uas tau fij tseg rau Kev Ua Tsov Rog Tib Neeg thiab kev tawm tsam rau txhua haiv neeg. [146] [147] [148] [149]

Kab lis kev cai

Raws li Vladimir Dedijer , ntau dua 40,000 qhov kev ua haujlwm ntawm cov neeg sau paj lug tau raug tshoov siab los ntawm Cov Neeg Partis. [150]

  1. ^ Serbo-Croatian , Macedonian , Slovene : Partizani, Партизани
  2. ^ Serbo-Croatian : Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Macedonian : Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Slovene : Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV)
  3. ^ Serbo-Croatian : Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Macedonian : Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Slovene : Narodnoosvobodilna vojska hauv partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV hauv POJ)
  4. ^ Serbo-Croatian : Narodnooslobodilački partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOPOJ), Народноослободилачки партизански одреди Југославије (НОПОЈ); Macedonian : Народноослободителни партизански одреди на Југославија (НПОЈ) ; Slovene : Narodnoosvobodilni partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOPOJ)
  5. ^ Serbo-Croatian : Narodnooslobodilačka partizanska i dobrovoljačka vojska Jugoslavije (NOP Kuv DVJ), Народноослободилачка партизанска и добровољачка војска Југославије (НОПНОП Macedonian : Народноослободителна партизанска и волонтерска војска на Југославија (НОП и ВВЈ) ; Slovene : Narodnoosvobodilna partizanska hauv prostovoljna vojska Jugoslavije (NOP hauv PVJ)
  6. ^ Serbo-Croatian : Jugoslavenska armija (JA), Југословенска армија (ЈА); Macedonian : Југословенска армија (ЈА) ; Slovene : Jugoslovanska Armada (JA)

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