Nayanars

The Nayanars (lossis Nayanmars ; Tamil : நாயன்மார் , romanized:  Nāyaṉmār , lit. 'hounds of Siva', thiab tom qab ntawd 'xib fwb ntawm Siva') [1] yog pab pawg ntawm 63 tus neeg ntseeg nyob hauv Tamil Nadu thaum lub sijhawm thib peb txog rau xyoo pua 8th CE leej twg tau mob siab rau Hindu vaj tswv Shiva . Nrog rau Alwars , lawv cov neeg nyob ib puag ncig uas tau mob siab rau Vishnu , lawv tau cuam tshuam rau Bhakti kev txav chaw thaum ntxov medieval South India . [2] Cov npe ntawm Nayanars tau xub sau los ntawm Sundarar. Cov npe tau nthuav dav los ntawm Nambiyandar Nambi thaum nws sau cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm cov kws sau paj huam rau Tirumurai sau, thiab yuav suav nrog Sundarar nws tus kheej thiab Sundarar niam txiv.

Cov npe ntawm Nayanars tau xub sau ua ke los ntawm Sundarar (Sundararmurthi). Hauv nws zaj paj huam Tiruthonda Thogai nws hu nkauj, hauv kaum ib nqe, cov npe ntawm cov neeg ntseeg Nayanar mus txog Karaikkal Ammaiyar , thiab hais txog nws tus kheej li "tus tswv ntawm cov tub qhe". [2] [3] [4] Cov npe tsis tau nkag mus rau qhov nthuav dav ntawm lub neej ntawm cov neeg ntseeg, uas tau piav qhia ntxaws hauv kev ua haujlwm xws li Tevaram . [5]

Hauv xyoo pua 10, vaj ntxwv Raja Raja Chola Kuv tau sau tag nrho ntawm Tevaram tom qab hnov ​​cov lus hais tawm ntawm cov nkauj qhuas vajtswv hauv nws lub tsev hais plaub. [6] : 50  Nws tus pov thawj Nambiyandar Nambi pib sau cov nkauj qhuas Vajtswv ua ntu zus hu ua Tirumurai . Nws tau npaj cov nkauj qhuas Vajtswv ntawm peb tus kws sau paj huam Sambandar , Appar thiab Sundarar ua thawj xya phau ntawv uas nws hu ua Tevaram . Nws suav Manikkavasakar 's Tirukovayar thiab Tiruvasakam ua phau ntawv thib yim, 28 nkauj qhuas Vajtswv ntawm cuaj lwm tus ntseeg raws li phau ntawv thib cuaj, Tirumandiram ntawmTirumular thiab 40 zaj nkauj qhuas los ntawm 12 lwm tus kws sau paj huam raws li phau ntawv thib kaum. Hauv phau ntawv thib kaum, nws tau tsim Tirutontanar Tiruvanthathi (tseem hu ua Tirutoṇṭar Antādi , lit. Necklace ntawm Verses ntawm tus tswv cov tub qhe), uas suav nrog 89 nqe lus, nrog ib nqe lus mob siab rau txhua tus neeg ntseeg. Nrog kev ntxiv ntawm Sundarar thiab nws niam thiab txiv mus rau qhov ua ntu zus, qhov no tau dhau los ua cov npe teev tseg ntawm 63 tus neeg ntseeg. [5] Hauv lub xyoo pua 12th, Sekkizhar tau ntxiv kaum ob ntim rau Tirumurai hu ua Periya Puranam uas nws nthuav tawm ntxiv ntawm cov dab neeg ntawm txhua ntawm 63 Nayanars. [1] [2] [3]

Cov Nayanars tau los ntawm ntau qhov keeb kwm yav dhau los, suav nrog Channar , Vanniyar , Vellalas , Idayars , Kurumbars , Thevars , cov neeg siv roj, Brahmins , Washermen , Harijan , thiab cov neeg muaj koob npe . [1] Nrog rau kaum ob Vaishnava Alwars , lawv raug suav hais tias yog cov neeg ntseeg Hindu tseem ceeb los ntawm South India .

Sundarar thawj daim ntawv teev npe ntawm Nayanars tsis ua raws ib qib zuj zus hais txog keeb kwm keeb kwm lossis qhov tseem ceeb. Txawm li cas los xij, qee pab pawg tau ua raws li kev xaj xaj lawv cov duab Nayanar lub tuam tsev raws li Sundarar cov paj huam nrog rau cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm Nambi thiab Sekkizhar. [3] [7]

Tus kws sau paj huam xyoo pua 9th Manikkavacakar tsis suav tias yog ib tus ntawm 63 Nayanars tab sis nws cov haujlwm yog ib feem ntawm yim ntim ntawm Tirumurai . Txawm hais tias suav ib txwm ntawm Nayanars tsuas yog 63, [10] Tus kws sau paj huam Tamil-philosopher Valluvar feem ntau suav tias yog 64th Nayanar raws li lub cim ntawm kev hwm thiab raug coj mus txhua xyoo los ntawm ntau lub zej zog thoob plaws Sab Qab Teb Is Nrias teb , suav nrog Mylapore thiab Tiruchuli cov zej zog. [11]


Lub Nalvar ( lit. 'Lub Plaub') ntawm Shaiva Siddhanta - (los ntawm sab laug) Sambandar , Appar thiab Sundarar , peb foremost Nayanars, thiab Manikkavaasagar .
63 Nayanars hauv lub tuam tsev Shiva
Kannappa Nayanar

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